53 Chapter 13: Construction, Development, And Planning Activities: 1916-Present

Crater Lake National Park: Administrative History by Harlan D. Unrau and Stephen Mark, 1987


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CHAPTER THIRTEEN: Construction, Development, And Planning Activities In Crater Lake National Park: 1916-Present


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When Crater Lake was placed under the administration of the National Park Service in 1916 construction and development of park facilities became the major components of the park program. During the first year that Crater Lake was under the Park Service three new trails were constructed, all of which radiated from Crater Lake Lodge–one to the boat landing, 1-1/4 miles, descending 900 feet on a relatively easy grade; one to Garfield Peak, 1-1/4 miles, ascending 1,000 feet and affording magnificent views of the lake and the surrounding country; and one to the Watchman, 4 miles, affording “extraordinary views” of the lake along a winding trail that was passable by horses. Whereas the old trail to the lake had been narrow, steep, and subject to washouts, the new trail was constructed “with the idea of making it possible for men, women, and children of all ages and conditions of health to get down from the rim of the crater to participate in the sports of boating and fishing on the lake itself.” The trail, according to Mather, would “result in lengthening the stay of every visitor to Crater Lake Park.”

Road construction and improvements in the park, which had been underway for several years, continued under the National Park Service. In 1917 Superintendent Sparrow reported:

A few years ago an appropriation was made by Congress for the survey of a comprehensive system of roads within the park, the main feature of which consisted in a road entirely around the lake, close to the rim whenever possible. This survey was made under the direction of the Secretary of War, two seasons being required to complete it, and a report thereon was submitted to Congress, estimating the total cost, including $65,000 for a sprinkling plant, at approximately $700,000, and recommending that it be placed under the continuing contract feature in a manner similar to certain harbors. Of this amount an appropriation was made of $50,000 for use during the season of 1913, $75,000 for 1914, $85,000 for 1915, $50,000 for 1916, $50,000 for 1917, and $50,000 for 1918, making a total to date of $360,000.

Under these appropriations grading has proceeded steadily, resulting in the reconstruction of old roads and the building of new ones, until at this time there are 51 miles of well-constructed dirt roads in use, leaving 6 miles of construction for the season of 1918, when the road around the rim will be complete, providing an excellent highway that will soon become famous throughout the world for its unsurpassed scenic beauty and grandeur.

Despite the progress in road development Mather felt that all roadwork at Crater Lake and other Park Service areas should be carried out under the direction of the Department of the Interior rather than the War Department. This would insure

that uniform policy in the improvement of all parks may be formulated and followed and for the further reason that it is most desirable to have all park roads maintained for the benefit of the tourist solely and with his interest constantly in mind.

In addition to the development of roads within the park, Mather devoted considerable attention to the problem of adequate approach roads to Crater Lake. In 1917, for instance, he reported:

The roads leading to the various gateways of the park from Medford, Klamath Falls, and Kirk, Oreg., have not been in good condition during the past season. The road from Medford to the park boundary, a total length of 72 miles, was not built as an automobile road in the beginning and must be largely reconstructed. Jackson County and the citizens of Medford have spent large sums of money in improving sections of this road, and their work is of such a permanent character that the surfacing of their improvements is all that now remains to finish them. It is a fact that Jackson County and its citizens have aided in the improvement of this road to the limit of their capacities, and the time has now come when the State of Oregon and the Federal Government must combine to permanently improve this main highway into the park. It is my understanding that the State of Oregon has already arranged to cooperate with the Federal Government and that the basis of Federal assistance under the good roads act is all that is necessary to be determined before improvement work is begun.

If a satisfactory basis can not be determined within a short time, it would seem that a new plan involving direct appropriations by the Federal Government and by the State for the purpose of rebuilding the approach roads, not only from Medford but from Klamath Falls, in connection with the intrapark system, should be devised. It must be understood that the counties of southern Oregon can not possibly build these approach roads or even keep them in repair. They can not raise sufficient funds by subscription or taxation–Jackson County, in which the Medford approach road lies, has already reached the limit of its authority to bond itself for road-building purposes. . . . A park tour, including a trip over both the Medford and Klamath Falls roads–that is, in one gateway and out the other–is and should be the favorite way of seeing this park. The road up the Rogue River Canyon on the Medford side is interesting on account of the volcanic origin of the canyon itself and beautiful because there is so much timber and so many vistas of far-scenery visible between the trees. On the other hand, the road down from Crater Lake to Klamath Falls through the Klamath Indian Reservation and along the shore of Klamath Lake is a scenic road of the highest order.

Utility systems in the park also received considerable attention by the National Park Service in 1917. Superintendent Sparrow described the operation and proposed changes in the telephone system to better serve park operations:

The National Park Service controls 20 miles and the United States Engineer Department controls 34 miles of telephone lines in the park. All service in the park is free. Government messages are transmitted free over 9 miles of commercial line to Fort Klamath, in exchange for 50 per cent of the revenue from private calls to or from the park. The revenue from this service is small and necessitates a switchboard at park headquarters. A movement, however, is under way to obviate the necessity of this switchboard. The United States Engineer Department also has 14 miles of line from the east entrance of the park to Kirk, at the end of the railroad. Considering the temporary construction of much of these lines, the service is very good.

Echoing the earlier recommendations of William G. Steel, Sparrow indicated the need for installation of a water system on the rim near the lodge “for the use of campers and for other purposes.” This water supply was “of the utmost importance” because, according to the superintendent, only “through the generosity of the Crater Lake Co. in furnishing water to us were we enabled to establish a construction camp of 25 men on the rim instead of 1 mile distant from our trail work.”

During 1917 two ranger cabins were constructed at the east and west entrances of the park to complement the existing cabin at the south entrance. The ranger cabins were formally styled log structures that bear a striking relationship to later, purposely rustic, park structures. A photograph of one of the cabins was included in the Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service with the caption that the structure was illustrative of the type of ranger station adopted for the park. Although the highly stylized appearance of the two cabins suggests that either a landscape architect or an environmentally-sensitive architect played a role in the buildings’ design, research has not been able to confirm this supposition. [1]

On May 13, 1918, Secretary of the Interior Lane sent a letter to NPS Director Mather, articulating a general policy statement to provide a sound basis for the administration and development of the National Park System. The policy statement detailed the parameters that would govern future construction and development in each unit, including Crater Lake, in the embryonic system. The statement emphasized the necessity of environmentally-sensitive construction, design, and development in the parks:

In the construction of roads, trails, buildings, and other improvements, particular attention must be devoted always to the harmonizing of these improvements with the landscape. This is a most important item in our programs of development and requires the employment of trained engineers who either possess a knowledge of landscape architecture or have a proper appreciation of the esthetic value of park lands. All improvements will be carried out in accordance with a preconceived plan developed in special reference to the preservation of the landscape, and comprehensive plans for future development of the national parks on an adequate scale will be prepared as funds are available for this purpose. [2]

Park development continued at Crater Lake in 1918 under the watchful eye of Mather and the immediate supervision of Sparrow. In his annual report that year Mather reported on the progress that had been made in improvements to roads, campgrounds, trails, and facilities in the park to enhance the qualities of the visitor’s experience:

. . . Negotiations extending over a considerable period of time finally resulted, during the early spring of this year, in the approval by the Secretary of Agriculture of a cooperative agreement covering the development of these [approach] roads [from Medford and Klamath Falls]. The Federal funds to be made available will come from appropriations authorized in the Federal aid roads act for national forests. No reconstruction work will be done during the war, but the project is to be undertaken immediately upon the return of peace; in other words, the project is a preferred one. The rebuilding of these forest roads and the completion of the Rim Road by this Service will give Crater Lake National Park merited importance as an objective for motor travel.

Congress appropriated $50,000 for the completion of the grading of the Rim Road, but it is not likely that the work can be finished this year. Of the total of 35 miles, the 14 miles between Cloudcap and Watchman must be improved. Increased labor costs, difficulties experienced in securing men, and other obstructive influences have contributed to the situation. It will probably require $7,000 to complete the work. The Corps of Engineers of the Army will authorize its transfer to the National Park Service in the next sundry civil bill. It is clearly the intent of Congress that all work of maintaining the system shall be intrusted to this Bureau, and as there is little to be done to complete the Rim Road it seems hardly necessary to require the Corps of Engineers to organize another field party next year when the superintendent of the park can handily perform this work at much less expense. The economies attending the combination of engineering and administrative office forces, the establishment of single management et cetera should also be considered at this time.

The public camp grounds on the rim of the crater were greatly improved during the summer season. A large tank and pumping equipment have been purchased and will soon be installed for the purpose of supplying water to campers on the rim grounds which are located a short distance west of the hotel in a beautiful alpine park area commanding a wonderful view of the lake. Heretofore, water has been taken from the very inadequate hotel supply. The camp grounds will be equipped with shower baths if the water supply can be developed as expected. In this park, as in all others, special attention is constantly given to maintaining public camp grounds in a thoroughly sanitary condition.

The accessibility of the new Rim Road, and all of the new trails from this camping area on the rim of Crater Lake should make it one of the most popular camping grounds in the national park system, and should attract the pedestrian and horseman as well as the motorist.

The splendid new trail from Crater Lake Lodge to the shore of the lake, one of the important improvements of last year, has given pleasure and refreshment to thousands, and, as we expected, elderly people and visitors wholly unaccustomed to climbing availed themselves of the opportunity to make the delightful trip from the lodge to the edge of the lake, thence in motor boats around the lake to Wizard Island and the Phantom Ship, and to other points of interest. The new trails to Garfield Peak and the Watchman were also exceedingly popular during the past season. A trail to the summit of Union Peak is now under construction and will be finished before the park is closed for the winter. [3]

The unsurfaced 35-mile Rim Road was completed, with the exception of eight miles that required further widening and grading, and opened to the public on August 2, 1918. Later that month Mather made the trip around the lake, pronouncing it “a wonderful scenic tour” and the “most important feature in the development and administration” of the park during the year. Mather went on to state that the “road is one of the finest scenic highways of the world.” Not only were the ”views of the marvelous lake superb and unique, but the glimpses of the surrounding region that falls away from the crater are only slightly less sensational.” In order to provide the visitor with “even more thrilling views of Crater Lake or the adjacent mountain region than that afforded at the points where the Rim road overlooks cliffs of the crater,” new trails had been built from the road to Sun Notch and Crater Peak.

By an Act of Congress of July 19, 1919, the road engineering work in Crater Lake National Park was transferred from the Corps of Engineers to the National Park Service. All property and equipment of the corps that had been purchased with park funds were delivered to the Park Service, and anticipating the transfer the corps placed the direction of the improvement work under Superintendent Sparrow at the beginning of the 1919 summer season. [4] With the transfer of this engineering work the National Park Service, according to Mather “gained complete control of the last national park in which authority was divided between it and the War Department.”

With the completion of the Rim Road Mather focused his attention on two problems relating to roads both inside and outside the park. A permanent paving program was needed on park roads to prevent dust problems, insure more economical maintenance, and make them more durable. In this regard Mather observed:

Because of the nature of the soil in Crater Lake National Park, which in many places is either a volcanic ash or volcanic sand, in many stretches of the road natural surfaces are impossible to maintain. Where the road surface is a volcanic-ash soil it rapidly breaks up under automobile travel and becomes a finely pulverized and almost impalpable dust, which, when dry, flows much like Portland cement, filling the ruts and chuck holes so that to the eye they appear fairly smooth, yet offering no cushion to absorb the shock of the rut or chuck hole. Much of this dust is puffed into the air by the wheels of the automobile, where it remains in suspension for a long time, filling the eyes and nostrils of the occupants of automobiles, and often obscuring the view.

The sandy soil is of a very friable nature and impossible to pack or consolidate, and as a result many automobiles get stuck when these sandy stretches occur on hills, as is the usual case. That these conditions would exist was known in advance of the construction of the road system, for the roads at Crater Lake were built by the Engineer Corps in accordance with the scheme or project outlined in House Document No. 328, Sixty-second Congress, second session, in which provision was made for surfacing the entire system of roads with macadam, and the construction and maintenance of a sprinkling system to keep the macadam roads in repair and free from dust. During the first season of actual road construction short stretches of experimental road surfaces were laid, and it was developed that an oil-bound macadam, which was about as cheap as water-bound macadam, satisfactorily withstood travel demands, while the water-bound macadam did not.

Much of the 57 miles of road constructed is in material that with a reasonable fund for maintenance can be kept in a fair condition for travel, but perhaps half of this mileage is in need of permanent surfacing, which is the best and only economical method of maintaining it. Certain short sections of the road that are in most need of surfacing should be surfaced each season until all of the bad sections are thus improved, and in line with this idea I have included in the estimate for 1921 an item for surfacing 3 miles most in need of this treatment.

The other continuing concern of Mather was the deteriorating state of approach roads to the park. Now that World War I was over and federal and state funds were again available he wished to see the approach roads quickly rebuilt or repaired in order to develop Crater Lake “as a resort for motorists.” Particularly disturbing to Mather was the poor condition of the state road leading to the park from Medford. He observed:

. . . The section around Prospect was the worst part of the highway. The State is now working in this region on an entirely new road, but little was done to keep the present road in anything approaching proper usable condition. With the very heavy travel of this year it became deeply rutted and terribly dusty.

While road development was the principal concern of park management in 1919, other park development projects were also undertaken. One of the first to be completed was the installation of a water supply system for the convenience of campers at the rim. According to Superintendent Sparrow the new system “justified itself in the comfort provided for visitors and the growing popularity of the campground.” [5]

A variety of physical improvements were carried out in the park during fiscal year 1920. One of the major projects consisted of cutting brush to a width of eight feet around the 65-mile park boundary. All trees in this strip were blazed on two sides. This was done to eliminate arguments with stockmen and poachers as to the exact location of the park boundary and to provide for a fire break around the park perimeter.

Improvements were also made to the Rim Campground. It was found necessary to enlarge the water reservoir at the rim. Thus, a third 5,000-gallon tank was installed in the tank house, providing an ample water supply for the campground for many years to come. Additional toilets were built at the Rim and Lost Creek campgrounds, and preparations were made to install toilets at the boat landing on the lake. [6]

A variety of park development projects were carried out in 1921 that were designed to enhance visitor enjoyment of the park. On August 25, 1921, the Scenic America Company, headed by Fred H. Kiser, erected a stone studio west of the lodge for the display of pictures and paintings of scenic features of the park. The structure was hailed as “a splendid addition to the rim village” that harmonized “perfectly with its surroundings.” Other improvements that year included construction of a new crib dock to which a raft or floating dock was attached at the boat landing on the lake, extension of water lines, and provision for better sanitation in the public campgrounds. A public comfort station, complete with toilet, lavatory, and shower bath facilities, was erected at the Rim Campground. The station was constructed of stone to harmonize with the lodge and Kiser Studio.

Provision was also made for warehouse/storage facilities in the park during 1921. The temporary warehouse, built during the construction of Rim Road two miles east of Wineglass, was moved to Wineglass Camp to store equipment during the winter. Another temporary building north of Llao Rock, also constructed during the Rim Road work, was moved to the Devils Backbone vicinity to be used for storing plows, scrapers, and similar equipment during the winter months.

The continuing efforts of Mather to have the federal and state governments improve the approach roads to the park from Medford, Klamath Falls, and Bend finally resulted in substantive action in 1921. Highways leading to the park, according to Sparrow, were “undergoing extensive reconstruction, or being relocated and entirely new roads, on better grades, being made.” The status of the entrance roads was:


The road from Medford to the west entrance of the park, 69 miles has been greatly improved within the last year. Forty miles of this road has been surfaced with crushed rock, and with the exception of 6 miles will all have been relocated and reconstructed by the end of the present working season.


Of the 50 miles of highway between Klamath Falls and the south entrance to the park, 20 miles have been macadamized within the last year, and the remaining 30 miles are being prepared for macadam or gravel.


Construction work is underway on 40 miles of the 108 miles of highway between Bend and the east entrance to the park.


A 16-foot road has been constructed by the Forest Service from Diamond Lake to the north boundary of the park, and when the road building schedule of the State is completed this will be an important entrance to the park. [7]

Throughout the mid-1920s development projects at Crater Lake were concentrated on improvements to road, trail, and utility systems and construction of facilities designed to improve visitor services and park operations. In 1923, for instance, Mather reported on improvements that had been made to the park approach roads and the need to bring the park roads up to those standards:

A most gratifying development has been the notable improvement of approach roads to the park. The Crater Lake Highway out of Medford is now nearing completion and by next season will be widened and surfaced to the park gate. The work on the Klamath Highway has been similarly pushed even more energetically. Construction of The Dalles-California Highway is being carried along rapidly, so that within two years it will be a most important approach highway.

The unprecedented travel over our own 57 miles of roads punished them severely, and while they were maintained as something better than passable the time has come when surfacing is imperative. Oregon has spent and is spending tremendous sums to bring visitors safely and comfortably to the park gate, and in simple justice to all concerned the Federal Government must hold up its end. All three entrance roads contain stretches of volcanic dust which rut deeply and dust up miserably but which can be surfaced at comparatively small cost. The improvement of these stretches together with the light graveling of about 25 miles of the park road system is not only an immediate need but an absolute obligation. . . .

In addition to the roadwork a variety of new construction projects were carried out in the park during 1923. Among the most important, according to Superintendent Thomson, were:

A standard combination mess hall and bunk house was erected at Lost Creek, and firewood stored in it at the close of the season for the use of preseason visitors next year. Two new toilets complete with lavatories were erected at the Rim auto camp ground, and two oil-burning water heaters installed in the new comfort station, so that hot shower baths were available all season. A large septic tank was also constructed at this camp ground. Two similar toilets were constructed at Anna Spring auto camp ground. A large barn was constructed at Anna Spring, a highly satisfactory type of building provided with kicking bars and hinged mangers, an arrangement permitting of its conversion in 15 minutes into a warehouse for winter storage of trucks and other large equipment. Two 20,000-gallon water tanks were installed at the Rim auto camp. A 70-foot log boat landing was constructed at Wizard Island. A rustic screen was erected to eliminate clotheslines from the Rim landscape. Over a thousand feet of pipe was laid in various camp grounds. Sixty new signs were painted and distributed. A new bear-proof meat house was constructed at Government Camp. A large latrine was built at Government Camp. [8]

The year 1924 saw the completion of the western and southern entrance roads to the park and improvements to the eastern entrance approach road. Superintendent Thomson reported:

The year saw the completion of the Mile-high Highway between Klamath Falls and a point 6 miles below Ashland on the Pacific Highway. This fine macadam highway, together with the equally well maintained highway between Klamath Falls and our south entrance, was used by a greatly increased proportion of Park visitors.

The McLeod Cascade Gorge section of the Crater Lake Highway out of Medford to our west entrance was completed this year. This road is now completely widened and is surfaced except for the 6-mile stretch between Silver Camp and our west entrance.

The Dalles-California Highway is completed from Klamath Falls to a point beyond intersection with the 4-mile spur connecting with our east road; northward toward Bend, however, it was bad going.

In addition a number of construction/development projects were commenced in the park during 1924. New trails were constructed from White Horse Bridge to the Nutcracker and from Government Camp in Munson Valley to the Lady of the Woods. Telephone service was improved by the installation of four high-power instruments and construction of a parallel line between Anna Spring and Government Camp, making two simultaneous conversations possible. A wing was added to the log cabin (built several years earlier by the U.S. Corps of Engineers) used as the office of the superintendent at Government Camp to provide additional space for a general office, enlarged registration and record-keeping facilities, and an information desk area This latter project was in line with the park’s long-term objective of moving all administrative offices and park operations activities from Anna Spring to Government Camp (which would soon become known as park headquarters) because of its relative proximity to the visitor facilities at the rim. A Community House was constructed at the Rim Campground using funds that had originally been appropriated for a new superintendent’s home. The structure was designed to provide a setting for dancing, lectures, and other visitor entertainment. [9]

Paltry park appropriations permitted little new construction in the park during 1925, with the exception of projects to improve the south and west entrance roads to the park. This work was described by Superintendent Thomson:

. . . The 6.8 miles of the Medford entrance was realigned, grades and curvatures reduced, and two bridges replaced with fills; the 8.1 miles of the Klamath entrance was also corrected and similarly freed of unnecessary hazards. A penetration macadam pavement, 16 feet wide, was laid over about 8 miles–a dustless road bed that will transform park travel. It is expected that the 18.3 miles authorized will be completed before mid-season next year, providing pavement as far as Government camp. This work was carried on with a minimum of detours.

Other than these road projects new construction was limited to the building of a garage and considerable improvements to the park telephone and sanitary systems. The latter included construction of a new comfort station and septic tank and laying of a new 2,700-foot 4-inch pipeline from the pumping station to the rim tanks. [10]

In 1926 National Park Service engineers revised the road program for the park that had been devised by army engineers some years before. The new plans were coordinated with the Bureau of Public Roads, which took over road construction in the park on January 1, 1926, with District Engineer C.H. Purcell of Portland in charge. The revised plans provided for improvement of existing roads by regrading, resurfacing, and realignment.” [11]

Upon the joint recommendation of the district engineer and the park superintendent road surfacing at Crater Lake was changed from penetration-pavement to crushed rock macadam treated with light road oil. This change was made primarily in the interests of economy. Both the west and south entrance roads were thus surfaced by August 10. A “thorough clean-up of the debris incidental to road construction was effected to a distance of 75 feet out from the ditch slopes.” Thus Mather was able to report “that these two roads are now dustless and the entire right of way rid of all debris, giving grasses and wild flowers opportunity to bloom–a tremendous improvement over former conditions.” Simultaneously, parking areas were widened and guard rails installed, “bringing these roads up to high park standards.”

The 6.5-mile stretch of highway between Silver Camp and the park’s west entrance was macadamized with state and federal funds. This completed the hard surfacing of the “Crater Lake Loop Road,” extending some eighty miles from Klamath Falls to the Pacific Coast Highway several miles south of Ashland.

Construction of a new road from Government Camp to the lake rim on a 6.5-percent maximum grade with a minimum curvature radius of 100 feet was completed by the autumn of 1926. The elimination of the former road with 11-percent grades with its steep and hazardous turns was, according to Mather, “a great step forward.” The road terminated at the rim “at a spot selected by the landscape division” that provided “a spectacular first sight of the lake and the crater.”

That same year a 65-foot rustic bridge was constructed across Goody Gulch at Anna Spring. This span greatly improved alignment by eliminating three “bad curvatures,” facilitated traffic, and permitted the gradual restoration of the spring area.

Continued low appropriations limited park construction items, other than roads, to $3,800 in 1926. Of this sum, $3,000 was spent on the construction of a small warehouse at Government Camp. This rustic structure was described as “an attractive building of rough stone walls, with second story of rough boards, battened with shake roof.” According to Superintendent Thomson, this was “the type of building evolved for use in all future construction here, and is the first building of the utility group planned for headquarters at Government camp.”

Several other construction projects were also carried out in the park during 1926. A fire lookout station was built on Mount Scott, following plans developed by the U.S. Forest Service. New telephone lines were constructed from Government Camp to the south and west entrances and from Lost Creek to the lookout on Mount Scott–a total of 26 miles of new telephone line. [12]

Efforts to finalize the first parkwide long-term development plan for Crater Lake were undertaken during the summer of 1926. The planning endeavor, which had been under discussion for several years, was headed by Thomas C. Vint of the NPS Landscape Division based in San Francisco. In July Vint informed Superintendent Thomson that the plan was “ready to be put into a definite form,” pending approval by the Washington Office. The key elements of the plan, most of which would receive Mather’s enthusiastic endorsement, related to development of concession facilities and development at the rim, Government Camp, and Anna Spring.

Vint presented the essential points of the plan and the rationale behind the planning decisions to Thomson on July 31. Relative to park concessions he stated:

Summarizing the present tourist facilities in the Park we find that we have an unbalanced program at present. We are furnishing the two extremes, namely, the American plan hotel which is the most expensive type of service, and on the other hand, the free Government auto camp, which is at the other end of the list of tourist facilities found in the parks. . .

There is no question that at Crater Lake there is a demand for a less expensive type of service than can be obtained at the hotel and, due to the fact that auto camps are provided enroute to and from the Park which the tourist can depend upon to get a cabin at a relatively low cost, this condition brings many who are not outfitted to stay in our free auto camps and who do not desire the more expensive type of service furnished by the hotel.

Reviewing our discussions of the next step taken in providing additional tourist facilities at Crater Lake we felt that the housekeeping type of camp should be the next step, this to go adjacent to, and possibly include some of the land within the present Rim auto camp. The hotel with the additions planned should be sufficient for this type of service at this Park for some time. The American plan tourist camp or Howard Hays camp would be the last step as the present Rim area could be divided between the hotel and the housekeeping unit by including in the hotel plan a cabin unit and possibly at the housekeeping unit developing two classes of service. When the day arrives that it is necessary to open a new area on the Rim such as Kerr Notch or possibly near Centinal Point, the American plan camp would be the logical unit to place there. The headquarters unit of the housekeeping camp would include the store, studio, and cafeteria or lunch room service for the entire Rim area.

Due to the limited amount of usable ground we will have to limit the number of facilities at the Rim as far as possible. For this reason the gasoline service station will be located at Government Camp.

Vint proceeded to detail the development plans for the rim,Government Camp, and Anna Spring. Concerning the rim area he observed:

. . . The new road approach which will be completed next season is one of the most powerful factors, having an influence on the general layout. Coming in at the western end of the area, traffic can be handled and distributed much easier than it is from the present approach.

The circulation system in our plan calls for a Rim-way walk with a dustless surface behind which would be the road way and parking area. After designing all necessary road ways and walks the intervening unused ground can be provided with a ground cover or other plant growth to stabilize the dust. The Rim walk will be one of the most important units of the Rim area development and its center of attraction will be at Victor Rock. The Kiser Studio now stands at the head of the trail leading to Victor Rock and in my mind stands on ground which should be given entirely to public use. With the studio moved to another location a far better development can be made at this point. The studio is now too small for present business and Mr. Kiser is already talking of an addition which will increase the volume of the building about three times. I realize that it is a difficult situation to move a concessionaire from such a strategic point, especially after he has been established there for a number of years. However, since we are just making the ultimate plan for the development of this area and since the concessionaire is planning additions on the present site, I believe that the present time will be our only opportunity to make the change and recommend that we sound out the Service and Mr. Kiser. The present Community House was too small the day it was finished but has served very well as a feeler for the type of structure needed at the Rim. It is of frame construction and necessarily not a long-lifed type of structure. You and I have decided to use a more permanent type of structure for all government buildings throughout the Park and as it will soon be necessary to make additions to the present community house I recommend that we work for a new building of larger dimensions and of a permanent type of structure, leaving the present building for other uses.

The housekeeping camp cabin unit I believe will best fit at the western end of the present auto camp and its headquarters building would necessarily be at that end of the Rim development.

I have in mind using the open desert area to the west of the Community House for a plaza development on which the new community house, the housekeeping camp headquarters with the general store and the Kiser Studio would form a unit of three buildings. This area places the buildings in a central location to serve the auto camp, the housekeeping camp, and those who come up to the Rim for the day, making it a logical location for the center of Rim activities. Furthermore, it places the unit sufficiently back from the Rim. The hotel leased area would stay as it is and will be beyond all other activities in the area.

Relative to the government camp area Vint noted:

The new road location through Government Camp which was decided upon last November makes a considerable change in the arrangement of the government general plan as we discussed it, a year ago. Now, the administrative unit will face a plaza adjacent to the present administration building, the utility group, and go in the trees to the west of the administrative area in the auto camp which was abandoned last season. The residence unit will go back of and above the present messhouse. The gasoline sales station will go in the junction of the Anna Spring and East Entrance road. At some future date a utility area for concessions may be developed in the trees to the south of the administrative unit on the site which we decided upon in the old plan for the Government utility site. This procedure may be necessary, due to the limited amount of usable ground and the limited water supply at the Rim area. This season we are building the new warehouse and have located it as the first building to go in the new utility site.

Vint had the following observations about the Anna Spring area:

The Anna Spring development is one of decreasing rather than increasing of facilities. The new road alignment provides the bridge across Anna Creek and a surfaced plaza area. The gasoline service station will be removed to Government Camp and the store abandoned at the end of this season. This will eliminate several structures, namely, the gasoline station and the cabins for Standard Oil employees, and the Anna Spring store buildings. The government development of that area is practically complete, includes the Superintendent’s residence and a small utility area, road crew quarters, warehouse, and barn, and a ranger station. The Superintendent’s residence and the utility group are as they will be for several years to come. The condemned white barn was razed this season and on the completion of the new ranger station the present obsolete type of building now in use can come down. [13]

In his annual report for 1926 Mather remarked upon the long-term development plan for the park. He noted that the “plan of development at Crater Lake is fortunately compact and simple and, as funds should become available soon, it is hoped that a five-year period will see development at this park completed except for camp ground developments, the limits of which can not be foreseen.” [14]

The comments by Mather concerning the need for appropriations to carry out the development program are interesting in light of a general statement on the poor condition of existing park facilities prepared by Superintendent Thomson in 1926. The statement was prepared to justify higher park appropriations requests from Congress. The statement contained the following observations:

There is a good hotel but approximately 90% of Park visitors fend for themselves, throwing very heavy loads upon our 10 camp grounds in the way of water supply, garbage disposal, sanitation, fuel, and policing. There is a stage concession, but 99% of our visitors arrive in their own automobiles.

The administrative problems involving future expenditures are, principally: housing of employees; storehouses; a slight increase in personnel; water supply and sanitation; and the continuing of road improvement. A construction program of $35,000 per annum for 5 years should adequately provide for all predictable requirements. . . .

Heretofore, Crater Lake National Park has been rigidly limited to 2 or 3 minor structural improvements annually;

appropriations have lagged far behind proportionate increase of travel and functions; improvements have been few and on a scale to barely gather up the slack here and there. Structures are nearly all ramshackle, built years ago to meet the temporary needs of road gangs engaged in 1913 to 1917 in road construction; these buildings have long outlived their usefulness and must be replaced with modest structures in keeping with new requirements and harmonious design. Consequently, 1926 finds Park facilities, as a whole, materially behind demands in every department. [15]

The NPS Landscape Division developed further plans in 1926-27 to provide for “naturalization” of the rim area. Until that time parking along the rim was unrestricted, the common practice being for motorists to park their automobiles anywhere they desired. The result of indiscriminate parking and heavy pedestrian traffic, along with the poor, sandy condition of the soil, rendered the entire area between the road and the rim “an unattractive sand waste.” The soil was composed of a high percentage of volcanic pumice which was constantly shifted by the wind. Thus, it became the goal of the NPS Landscape Division to restore the rim area, especially between the foot of Garfield Peak and the cafeteria, so that it would resemble “much of its original beauty” and be in harmony with its natural surroundings. It was the goal of NPS landscape engineers that the area be planned “so that thousands of visitors” could use it “without further permanent damage” to its inspirational beauty. [16]

Meetings were conducted in 1927 to implement the development plan for Crater Lake. The discussions were attended by NPS Assistant Director Horace M. Albright, Superintendent Thomson, representatives of the Bureau of Public Roads, and various officials of the National Park Service. As a result of the meetings Thomson observed in his annual report that this

year Crater Lake stood just at the cross roads between the old and the new; the removal of the last “teams have right-of-way” road sign was a symbol of the progress that is gradually bringing this Park nearer the standards imposed by modern conditions. When plans, now underway, are completed this Park will possess a well-rounded layout.

During the summer of 1927 Thomson approved plans for the development of the rim area and for “reclaiming the Rim Area from its present oppressive dustiness to a semblance of nature.” The plans provided that the park concessioner would construct and operate a badly-needed cafeteria and general store. A small group of rental cabins would be built, the structures to be extended as needs developed. These structures would occupy “a small desert in the campground, not otherwise useable, in line with our firm policy to protect the Rim from additional structures.”

The plan for “naturalizing” the rim area provided for an asphalt trail to be laid “along the edge of the Rim the full length of the Village.” Between this promenade and a park revetment the soil was to “be restored to natural grasses and wild flowers.” A wide parking area alongside a thirty-foot dustless road was “designed to distribute visitors perfectly.” As most park visitors spent virtually all of their stay at the rim, the “bringing of this area into orderliness” was, according to Thomson, “probably the most desirable single improvement possible at this park.”

As steps were commenced to implement these plans a variety of new construction projects were undertaken in 1927. That year the park received its largest appropriation ($29,100) to date for physical improvements.

The most notable construction project during 1927 was the building of a new trail down the crater wall to the lake, thus replacing the old trail with its narrow bench and grades of up to 28 percent. The new trail had a minimum bench of six feet and a maximum grade of 15 percent with a holding grade of 12 percent. The new trail was safe for the use of mules and burros, thus making the lake accessible to people who had been denied that pleasure previously because of the hardship of walking up the crater wall. The new trail began at a more accessible point on the rim and terminated on the lake shore on a natural bench, affording ample room for docking, sanitation, and visitor movement.

A variety of other structures were also completed in the park during 1927. These included a pumping plant, pump house, and concrete reservoir to serve Rim Village, an employee’s cabin and comfort station at Government Camp, a superintendent’s residence (Queen Anne style) at Medford designed by John B. Wosky, future park superintendent, a rest house at the foot of the new crater trail, and a barn that was convertible into a truck shed for winter storage. Anna Spring Bridge, a heavy peeled hemlock structure, was also completed. All of these structures were built of stone walls with a rustic superstructure, an architecture, according to Thomson, that was “practically permanent and highly appropriate.” [17]

Development work at Crater Lake reached new heights of activity in 1928 under the direction of Ward P. Webber, an assistant engineer from the NPS Engineering Division office in San Francisco. Six principal projects were undertaken: (1) roadside cleanup and landscaping between Anna Spring and the rim; (2) oil processing/surfacing of three roads; (3) grading and surfacing of a new road to Rim Village; (4) construction and paving of the Rim Trail Promenade; and (5) reconstruction/realignment of the Crater Wall Trail.

The roadside cleanup and landscaping project between Anna Spring and the rim was designed “to give a clean and pleasing effect when viewed from the traveled road” and to clear combustible material from the roadside and thus reduce the danger of having a fire start from a carelessly thrown match or cigarette. The average crew consisted of a foreman, one or two teams with drivers, two men blasting stumps, and from four to eight axemen.

Prior to 1928 landscaping in the park had been accomplished primarily in connection with the design and construction of buildings and bridges. In pursuit of the announced objective “of eventually restoring the park landscape to its original state as far as practicable,” landscape improvements were conducted at Cold Spring, Anna Spring Plaza, Anna Spring Dam, and the Rim Village area. According to Webber, the work at Cold Spring “transformed an excellent spring of cold water from a bog hole to an attractive improvement to the park by collecting the ground water in tile drains and bringing it to a central [rock-walled] basin” with “an overflow outlet provided.” The area surrounding the Anna Spring Plaza, formed by the junction of the roads leading to the west and south entrances and rim, was graded in preparation for seeding the ground with native grasses and plants. The work at Anna Spring Dam consisted of constructing a new rubble and masonry dam to replace a plank dam, removal of the rams beneath the highway bridge, and burying the pipes to provide “a more efficient installation as well as greatly improving the appearance of the spring.”

Three park roads received surfacing/oil processing treatment in 1928 under the direction of T.R. Goodwin, a road oiling expert loaned to the National Park Service by the California State Highway Commission. All told, 10.5 miles of oiled surface on the west entrance road to Anna Spring were reprocessed and 7.1 miles of crushed rock surface on the south entrance road to Anna Spring were finished by oil processing. The road grade from Anna Spring to the rim which had been completed in 1927 was surfaced with crushed rock and oil processing.

The projects at Rim Village consisted of grading and surfacing, construction of a promenade, and major work on the Crater Wall Trail. Improvements in the rim area consisted of grading and leveling the site for the cafeteria/general store building, changing the grade and alignment of the Rim Village Road, completion of the loop parking area at the lodge, removal of undesirable knolls, and filling in washes adjacent to the road. A heavy log railing was placed along the edge of the road and parking areas. The promenade consisted of a concrete walk 8 feet wide and 2,525 feet long, running along the rim from the lodge to a point approximately 380 feet north of the head of the new Crater Wall Trail. While the trail clearing and grading had been completed the year before, a crew of twelve men was hired to widen and lengthen each of the twenty switchbacks, build retaining walls and parapets, and place log seats at convenient intervals for resting. [18]

Several structures were completed in the park during 1928. A frame warehouse and garage were constructed in winter headquarters at Medford, thus permitting the off-season conditioning of park equipment. Two small two-story, two-bedroom employees’ cottages were constructed at park headquarters, the structures having stone walls with rustic superstructures. A new ranger station was constructed at Anna Spring, described by Thomson as “an appropriate structure of logs to match all of our other ranger stations.” A new Standard Oil Company service station at the road junction below park headquarters was opened to the public. Near the rim a rustic stone cafeteria/general store, together with twelve rental cabins, were built but not completed in time for use during the season. [19]

In his annual report for 1928 Mather was particularly pleased with the development projects in the rim area. He observed:

This vital Rim Area was opened at its west boundary by the completion of a new road, built on high standards of grade and curvature and emerging at the Crater edge at a point which gives the visitor a first breathless view of the magnificent spectacle. From this point a new road was completed and oiled that distributes traffic in turn to the new cafeteria and cabin group, to the camp ground or finally to the hotel at the opposite end of a half-mile plaza. On each side of this boulevard an eighteen foot parking strip was provided, which will accommodate several hundred cars. Along the very edge of the Crater rim a wide asphalt promenade was constructed for pedestrians, and the intervening area between this dustless trail and the log parapet which limits parking alongside the boulevard there was graded an area of variable width which will be restored to native grasses and wild flowers. The general effect of this development is a diminishing of the dust evil, greatly improved parking and traffic problems, and a bettered landscape.

The simultaneous completion of the new cafeteria and group of rental cabins, together with the new Crater Wall trail taking off from the west end of this area, rounds off this development. The new trail to the lake was constructed on high standards to permit the use of saddle animals, enabling many thousands to enjoy the lake who were heretofore denied that pleasure by physical incapacity. [20]

Construction and development projects at Crater Lake continued to be under the direction of Engineer Webber in 1929. The old ranger station at Anna Springs was torn down and removed. A new checking kiosk was constructed at Anna Spring, and the combination bunk and mess house at Government Camp was completed. The Mess Hall, as the building came to be called, housed kitchen and dining facilities and living quarters for seasonals. The latter building replaced a log structure that was removed, thus contributing to “a vast improvement to the landscape and efficiency of Government camp.” Park day labor crews constructed a new sewage disposal system at the park headquarters, consisting of a sewer line running from the utility area to an underground septic tank. [21]

A large appropriation of $94,400 for roads and trails permitted considerable construction in the park during 1930. Superintendent Solinsky reported that the following projects were undertaken:

Construction of the stone parapet along the lakeside of the rim promenade has been started and the work is progressing satisfactorily. When completed it will add very materially to the appearance of the rim area and will serve as a barrier to confine the people to the promenade.

A parking area at Elephant’s Back has been completed and a water supply provided for the motorists, which proves a very great benefit during the hot summer days.

About 3,800 feet of the new Garfield Peak Trail have been completed. The new trail will be approximately 8,000 feet in length. It will afford easy access for both foot and horse passengers to the top of this most interesting peak, where splendid views of the lake and surrounding country may be had. It no doubt will rival the new Crater Wall Trail to the lake in popularity with the visitor. The trail is being constructed on high standards with a minimum width of 4 feet and maximum grade of 15 per cent.

The new trail to Victor Rock and the new Sinnott Memorial have been completed with the exception of the surfacing.

About 9 miles of bridle paths have been completed leading from the rim to Anna Spring, with return trails, making a very interesting horseback trip.

Guard rails at the Anna Spring checking station and on one approach to Goodbye Bridge were constructed. Oil processing of the section of road crossing Goodbye Bridge was completed.

Other construction projects at Crater Lake during 1930 included the completion of a two-story stone and frame employee’s cottage at park headquarters, a combination bathhouse and comfort station at the rim, and a north entrance ranger station. The design of the latter building had been changed from log to stone for climatic and landscape considerations.

Meanwhile Merel S. Sager, who had received a master’s degree in landscape architecture from Harvard University, had been assigned to Crater Lake by the NPS field landscape engineering headquarters office to supervise architectural, landscape, and planning projects. Among the park development projects he advised on in 1930 were the Sinnott Memorial (discussed in the chapter on interpretation), roadside cleanup operations, location surveys for the proposed new Rim Road, and landscaping and revegetation of the rim area. Plans were laid to plant a sample plot at the head of Crater Wall Trail in order to determine the costs, feasibility, and best methods to be used in restoring vegetation on the dry pumice area of the rim. [22]

Construction and development projects at Crater Lake received a considerable boost in the early 1930s as a result of government emergency public works programs designed to counter the effects of the worsening Depression. Increasing funds were made available for park purposes to help alleviate the unemployment crisis. The 1931 construction season was the first at Crater Lake to be affected by such appropriations, a total of $546,750 being allotted for park development projects. Superintendent Solinsky described the construction season s operations:

. . . In our endeavor to assist the unemployment situation in this locality our forces were increased from 30 to 40 per cent over our normal requirements. This increase in force taxed our accommodations and facilities to the limit and the overburden in a measure increased the construction costs. Additional bunkhouse and messhall accommodations were necessary, additional transportation facilities were needed to take the crews to and from the work, additional hand tools and equipment were needed and the employment of hand labor, wherever possible rather than the use of labor saving machinery and equipment, all tended to increase the construction cost over what would have been the case under normal conditions.

The emergency funds permitted the park to undertake extensive improvements to its utility systems. A new electrical power system was installed to serve the Government Camp and rim areas, a water storage system was constructed near Garfield Peak to service the rim area, and a water supply system was built for the Lost Creek Ranger Station and public campground.

The allotted funds also enabled the park to perform various minor roads and trails construction projects. Some thirty men were employed to clean up both sides of the highway between Government Camp and the west park entrance, removing and burning trash, logs, dead snags, and debris. Rim Village landscaping and revegetation continued with primary emphasis being placed on the area at the head of Crater Wall Trail where shrubs, evergreens, and sod were planted. The Garfield Peak Trail was completed and quickly became one of the most popular trails in the park. A new parking area was constructed near the lodge and cafeteria to provide ample parking space for visitors. Some 66 miles of telephone line were reconstructed and relocated to remove all lines in sight of park roads, and all overhead wires in the rim area, Government Camp, and Annie Spring were replaced by underground cable. A new rustic fire lookout station was partially completed on Watchman Peak, and a storeroom and garage were added to the Government Camp utility area to house the park’s fire fighting equipment. Some thirty miles of fire lane motorways were constructed to aid in fire control and suppression operations. Initial grading and layout of three major road projects were begun, including grading on the first six-mile unit of the new Rim Road from the rim area to the North Entrance Ranger Station and a road from Lost Creek to Kerr Notch. [23]

Extensive construction and development activity continued at Crater Lake during 1932. An extensive program was undertaken at Government Camp to provide for more ample employee housing and aid park operations. The structures erected included two employees’ residences for the park superintendent and park naturalist, a ranger dormitory, combination machine shop/utility shed/oil house, and comfort station. These buildings shared a number of design elements that contributed to their unobtrusive, environmentally-sensitive rustic appearance, including the use of stone masonry, steeply-pitched roofs pierced by dormers and masonry chimneys, and multi-paned sash windows. The building projects, which were carried out under the guidance of the aforementioned Sager, has been called “one of the most comprehensive rustic architecture programs ever undertaken by the National Park Service.”

This rustic architecture program at Crater Lake has received considerable attention from National Park Service historians and architects. The principal study of such architecture in the parks was prepared in February 1977 by William C. Tweed, Laura E. Soulliere, and Henry G. Law. The authors of the study made the following observations about Crater Lake:

Despite the large number of structures under construction, Sager attempted to achieve high rustic quality in each and every structure. Responding to local geological and meteorological conditions, he chose as a central architectural theme for the government headquarters area, the use of massive stone masonry and steeply pitched shingle roofs.

The superintendent’s residence, the naturalist’s residence, and the ranger’s dorm, all built during the summer of 1932, shared these features. In each structure Sager continued his experiments with the use of wall stones of unprecedented size. He had first attempted this type of work at Crater Lake in the construction of the Sinnott Memorial museum in 1930-1931. Some of the stones incorporated into the government headquarters buildings were as large as 15 cubic feet in volume. . . .

When completed, the stone buildings with their steeply pitched green shingle roofs had an undeniable air of solidity about them. Some of the irregularly shaped stones near the bottoms of the walls were up to five feet across, and even the smaller stones placed near the top of walls were often two or three feet in diameter. The relationship of the walls to the underlying geology was obvious. The sharply pitched green shingle roofs bore clear resemblance to the pointed spires of the conifer snow-forest of Crater Lake. The buildings were practical, too. The steep roofs shed snow easily. The second story dormer windows were high enough to stay above the deep snowdrifts of winter, and the stone walls provided excellent insulation against low winter temperatures.

The oil house and machine shop buildings shared design features with the three residential structures just described. The Watchman Lookout, however, was a more complex project. Located atop one of the highest points on the lake’s rim, the lookout was to be both a trailside museum and a fire lookout. The resulting structure admirably filled both purposes. The flat roofed first floor, built of massive stones, housed the museum room, rest rooms and a storage area. The second story, which rested on only a portion of the irregularly shaped first floor, was a four-sided, glass enclosed observation room. Both the roof of the observation room and the catwalk running around it were made of logs. The effect was striking. The lookout seemed to be a part of Watchman peak. [24]

Roads and trails also received attention during 1932. New trails were constructed from the Rim Road to the Watchman Lookout Station and from the rim area to Discovery Point. The Watchman Trail was approximately one-half mile in length, five feet wide, and constructed on a grade of fifteen percent. The Discovery Point Trail was approximately 1.5 miles in length, five feet wide, and had no grades exceeding twelve percent. Both trails were oiled.

Various improvements were made to the Rim Village area. Stone parapet walls were completed, new sidewalks were laid, and the revegetation program was continued. Log railing was replaced by stone curbing, the log rail being used to replace the former small guard railing along the south entrance road and at the large turn between Annie Spring and Government Camp.

Road construction under the administration of the Bureau of Public Roads continued to be the focus of considerable activity in the park during 1932. Both the Lost Creek-Kerr Notch and Diamond Lake Junction to north park boundary roads, as well as the road from the rim to the north park entrance were completed by the fall. Sections of the Rim Road were surfaced.

Several construction projects were undertaken to expand and improve the forest protection and fire prevention programs of the park. A water supply system was provided for the Watchman Lookout Station. In addition some 25 miles of fire lane motorways were completed in the northwest and southwest sections of the park. [25]

By 1933 the effects of the Depression had made a significant impact on park operations and development. Regular appropriations for the park were reduced by some 15 percent, resulting in a decrease of temporary per diem employees who comprised the majority of the summer construction crews. The reduction in regular park appropriations also meant less funds were available for construction and development. The steady decline in regular park appropriations continued throughout much of the 1930s, averaging between 45 and 60 percent of pre-Depression levels. Not until 1938 did regular park appropriations return to levels approaching those of the pre-Depression years.

To fill the shortfall in regular funding for the construction and development programs at Crater Lake and other national parks, public works programs were established by the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The New Deal public works employment and funding agencies, in particular the Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) and Public Works Administration (PWA), provided a large infusion of men and funds to the park to enable management to complete a significant portion of the construction and development plans that had been approved in the late 1920s. Thus, the funds and manpower supplied by the New Deal agencies became an integral part of the park construction and development program. Without this impetus the ongoing work of developing Crater Lake according to its master plan would have come to a standstill during the 1930s.

Under the ECW program two Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps were established in Crater Lake National Park during June 1933. Camp No. 1 was set up temporarily in the “plaza” at Government Camp on June 12, and within two weeks the men were available for work. By that time there were 206 men at the camp, and of this total 172 were assigned to field work, 28 to camp duty, and 6 to clerical work. On July 1 and 2 the men were moved to new quarters “located on the opposite side of the road.” At first the men were housed in tents, but work soon began on frame buildings, consisting of a messhall, toilet, showers, and cold storage. Officers for the camp were housed in the new ranger dormitory.

It was originally determined to locate Camp No. 2 at the Wineglass on the Rim Road across the lake from the lodge. Heavy spring snows, however, made this objective impossible. The camp was thus located at Lost Creek, but the original name was retained to facilitate clerical work in Washington. After establishing a temporary camp on June 12, the men were moved to a permanent camp on July 5.

The men of both camps engaged in various construction, development, and maintenance projects from June 12 to September 30, 1933. The activities of the men in Camp No. 1 were concentrated on four principal projects: camp construction, insect control, landscaping, and roadside cleanup. Some 15,950 acres of forest were treated for insects. Landscaping was performed along the rim from the Information Building to the lodge as well as around the ranger dormitory, superintendent’s residence, naturalist’s residence, and three employee residences at Government Camp. The landscaping included the planting of sod, shrubs, and bushes, using peat hauled from a bog in Munson Valley and top soil taken from a dump hillside area along the east entrance road. The rim landscaping brought to completion the three-year-long objective of bringing back vegetation between the road and the rim all the way from the head of the trail to Crater Lake Lodge.” Eight miles of roadside were cleaned up, while two miles were partially cleaned.

Camp No. 1 enrollees also participated in other projects during 1933. These included:

Reconstruction and repair of eight miles of telephone line that had been downed by snow and wind falls

Planting of 120,000 fish in Crater Lake

Assistance in surveying 25 miles of roads and trails and sectionizing over an area of 70 square miles

Construction of three log patrol “snowshoe cabins” at Bear Creek, National Creek, and Maklak Spring to provide shelter for winter patrols and hunting season administration

Construction of twelve miles of new truck trails, formerly known as motorways, and maintenance of 82 miles of old truck trails for fire protection

Marking of 72 miles of park boundary for the information of park employees and hunters

Construction of a frame horse barn in the rear and to the south of the utility group at Government Camp (approximately on the site of the old horse corral).

Manpower for fire fighting

Twenty acres of public campground cleanup

The men of Camp No. 2 engaged in activities similar to those of Camp No. 1 during 1933. The principal projects of Camp No. 2 were roadside cleanup, insect control, and truck trail and horse trail construction. Some 4.6 miles of roadside were cleaned, and insect control work was conducted on 14,810 acres. Nineteen miles of truck trails were constructed at Sun Creek, Crater Peak, and Wineglass, and a 2-1/8-mile, 4-foot standard horse trail was built to the summit of Mount Scott.

Camp No. 2 enrollees also completed other projects in the park. These included rebuilding and repairing 4-3/4 miles of telephone line, construction of a one-mile fire break, and cleanup and burning of two acres of timber that had been downed by a windstorm on the Wineglass Tract several years earlier. Work at the Lost Creek Campground consisted of construction of a frame horse barn, cleanup of fifteen acres, and repair of one mile of water line. [26]

During the late summer of 1933 Public Works Administration funds totaling $701,350 became available for minor roads and trails projects and other physical improvements at Crater Lake. Much of the work carried out with PWA funding was performed by CCC personnel. An effort was made to push this work “so that a reasonably good showing could still be made for the construction season.” Some 1,200 feet of stone curbing was completed between the road junction and the lodge, and a bituminous sidewalk was constructed across the planting area near the lodge. Service roads were graded and partially completed between the plaza and the residential area and the plaza and the utility area at Government Camp. Two trails to Union and Crater peaks were partially finished as was a new road through the Rim Campground and a new parking area in front of the lodge. Four wood frame employees’ cabins and a comfort station in the Sleepy Hollow area near park headquarters were nearly finished. These simple and inexpensive cabins were the first of a group of such structures to be built for housing park seasonals. Sewer and water system extensions at Government Camp were completed, the latter consisting of a concrete tank being built up the stream behind the superintendent’s residence. A new water supply system was completed for the rim area with faucets being placed at convenient intervals along the walls in the planted area.

PWA funds also enabled the Bureau of Public Roads to let a number of contracts for major road construction in the park during 1933. Among these projects were Rim Road grading, surfacing and oiling of the east entrance road, and surfacing and guard railing along the Rim Road and Diamond Lake Road. [27]

Two CCC camps were again established at Crater Lake in 1934, Camp No. 1 moving to a new location near the Annie Spring Checking Station and Camp No. 2 using the same site at Lost Creek as the year before. [28] In order to relieve Acting Park Superintendent David H. Canfield of administrative details, ECW park engineer George F. Whitworth was appointed as general supervisor of all ECW activities at Crater Lake and Oregon Caves and Lava Beds national monuments. Some 185 enrollees were attached to Camp No. 1, while Camp No. 2 had 150 men. Relatively mild weather conditions permitted both camps to work from mid-April through mid-October. [29]

One of the major CCC projects during 1934 was the continuation of the park landscaping program. In October it was estimated that it would have taken regular park appropriations five years to accomplish an equivalent amount of landscaping work to that performed by the CCC in 1933-34. Using peat from Munson Valley and topsoil, plants, shrubs, and trees from various parts of the park, landscaping projects were conducted at the rim, Government Camp, and campgrounds. Completed, or nearly completed, was landscape work in front of the lodge and around the cafeteria building at the rim. At the Rim Campground 25 individual campground units were laid out, each having a combination stove, fireplace, tent site, table site, and sufficient parking area for an automobile. As a means of creating some privacy and at the same time restoring an area that had been heavily trampled, numerous plants and shrubs and a ground-cover of rush were placed throughout the area. At Government Camp the log administration building was demolished and the area landscaped. Landscaping activities were also carried out around the ranger dormitory, Government Camp entrance, concessionaire’s gasoline station, and various residences.

During 1934 CCC crews obliterated some six miles of old road sections that were adjacent to and visible from the main park highways. Most of this work was carried out on the south and west entrance roads, the road between Government Camp and Annie Spring, and the section of Rim Road from Lost Creek to the Bend Highway Junction. Several hundred trees were planted within the abandoned road beds.

Other CCC projects during 1934 included construction of three wood sheds in the utility area at Government Camp and two latrines each at the Whitehorse and Cold Springs campgrounds. Fire control truck trails or motorways were completed to Timber Cone Crater, Bear Creek, and Union Peak and from Castle Creek to the Watchman. Horse corrals were completed at Bear Creek, Government Camp, and Maklak Springs. Work was started on the 1.5-mile Vidae Falls Trail, and bank sloping and erosion control projects were conducted along the west and south entrance roads and the road from Government Camp to Rim Road. [30]

The Public Works Administration provided funds for considerable work at Crater Lake in 1934, some of the projects being carried out by CCC labor. Among the major projects that were placed under contract were those for surveying, grading, and surfacing sections and building masonry guardrails along portions of the new Rim Road. The roads at Government Camp were graveled, and cutstone curbing was placed around all driveways in that area as well as around the lodge and part of the distance from the lodge to the cafeteria. A new trail was built to the top of Wizard Island, the location being almost entirely through the wooded area on the south side of the island.

PWA funds were used to construct several buildings at Government Camp designed to increase the efficiency of park management and operations. By early October a new rustic architecture Administration Building was 80 percent completed. The structure, like the other buildings at Government Camp, featured massive boulder masonry, stained timbers, a steep pitched roof, and dormer windows. Extensive additions were made to the messhall and warehouse. A double vehicle garage and several storage sheds were constructed in the utility area for the expanding fleet of park maintenance trucks. [31]

Two CCC camps were again established in the park during 1935. As in previous years the work of the enrollees was concentrated on trail construction and maintenance, completion of the park road system, landscaping of the Government Camp and rim areas and Rim Campground, and road bank sloping. The most important building construction project funded by PWA appropriations was completion of the new Administration Building.

Nearly $500,000 in PWA allotments, provided under the Emergency Construction Act of June 19, 1934, enabled the park to complete much of its planned roadwork in 1935. In July Superintendent Canfield observed that the fire control motorway system for the park had been completed. In addition work had progressed under the Bureau of Public Roads to the point that some 18 miles of the new Rim Road were ready for oiling. He observed further:

Three more units were in varying stages of construction, bringing three-quarters of the rim circuit in the process of road building. This leaves only the highway from the East Entrance Highway to the Annie Spring-Rim Highway untouched except for survey work. Covering this stretch there has been a great deal of debate as to whether the so-called high line or the low line is the proper route. Sides and opinions on this subject have varied from year to year, being almost settled several times, but now apparently has been reopened. Survey work has also been done on the two entrance highways from south and west with a view toward reconstruction which is necessary in view of increased winter usage and contemplated snow removal operations. [32]

During the summer of 1936 only one CCC camp was established at Crater Lake. This was Camp No. 1 at Annie Spring, the enrollees having spent the winter at Oregon Caves National Monument. On May 21 a detachment of enrollees arrived at the park to assist in snow removal and “other smaller preparatory projects.” The full detail of enrollees did not arrive from Oregon Caves until June 22. The camp consisted of 137 men with a spike camp from Lava Beds National Monument supplying an additional 30 enrollees. Of the 137 men, 125 were junior enrollees and 12 were local experienced men.

One of the principal projects of the CCC enrollees in 1936 was the continuation of landscape work in the rim and park headquarters areas. Work was virtually completed in the Rim Campground with construction of fifteen additional log tables and benches and twenty more fireplaces, planting of shrubs and trees, and placement of logs and boulders for individual camping units. Expansion of the campground was undertaken with five fireplaces and log tables being built in the area below the existing campground. Further landscaping work was performed around the lodge, Community House, Information Building, north and south sides of the rim area, cafeteria, and island at the Rim Road junction. The tank house at the rim was razed and the area landscaped, and a new tile water line was laid near the pumping plant. By the summer of 1936 Superintendent Canfield was pleased to report that the rim area landscaping had “transformed a former dusty and unattractive area into a scene of native beauty.”

Landscape work at park headquarters consisted of planting and laying of walkways and the new Administration Building, ranger dormitory, warehouse, messhall, parking area, and various park residences. A stone base flag pole was completed at the east end of the Administration Building, and a rustic log directional sign was erected at park headquarters.

Other CCC projects during 1936 included construction of a rustic log foot bridge between the ranger dormitory and the messhall and placement of entrance motifs at the park’s west and south entrances. The exteriors of three temporary employees’ cottages were completed. Fireplaces and log tables for individual camping sites at the Cold Spring and Annie Spring campgrounds were built. Portions of abandoned roads were obliterated and replanted. [33]

Funds appropriated by various New Deal agencies enabled the park to carry out new construction projects in 1936. The heating system, flooring, and other interior finishing touches in the ranger dormitory were completed. The structure had been commenced in 1932 but left unfinished because of the exhaustion of funds. Roadwork under the supervision of the Bureau of Public Roads, however, continued to be the principal public works project in the park. Superintendent Canfield provided a brief overview of the various road projects in his annual report for 1936:

With the new Rim Road in varying stages of construction and completion over a length of 25 miles, bids were being sought at the end of the year for the next unit leading from Kerr Notch to a point near Sun Notch, 2.723 miles. The discussion of several years as to location of the road from Kerr Notch to Park Headquarters was decided. The new road from Kerr Notch to Sun Notch will be at a higher level than the old road, but from that point will follow approximately the old road to Park Headquarters. The new route opens interesting new scenery to the traveling public.

Placing of crushed rock on the 13 mile unit from the North Entrance Ranger Station to Cloudcap was begun, and work was continued on two units from Cloudcap to Kerr Notch. Hard-surfacing of the Rim Road from the Lodge to the North Boundary was completed, including the paving of the entire Rim Area used by motor travel and the large parking area in front of the cafeteria, eliminating dust conditions which had been prevalent for many years.

The hard surfacing of the Rim Road to the North Entrance Checking Station, completes the first unit of the rim route with the exception of minor finishing work. The hard surfacing of the road from the checking station to the north boundary makes fast motor transportation to Diamond Lake and The Dalles-California Highway possible. Much favorable comment has been heard from the motoring public on these particular roads. [34]

The year 1937 again saw the establishment of two CCC camps in the park at Annie Spring and Lost Creek. Between June 15 and October 15 the enrollees engaged in landscaping, road bank sloping, cleanup, motorway maintenance, fire fighting, fish planting, residence construction, improvements to building interiors, wood cutting, obliteration of old roads, and snow removal from roads, trails, and buildings. Among the principal CCC projects were:

(1) Conversion of unused portion of messhall into four rooms for female help, toilet, and reading room

(2) Construction of three employees cottages, bringing total number of houses in employees’ cabin area to ten

(3) Construction of 40-car parking area near utility area at park headquarters

(4) Landscaping at park headquarters and in rim area, including planting of 2,200 shrubs, plants, and trees at the former and 850 at the latter

(5) Obliteration of abandoned roads at park headquarters and some six miles of old Rim Road

(6) Signs and markers for buildings at park headquarters

(7) Construction of comfort station in rim area

(8) Construction of 30 individual camping sites and 20 fireplaces at Rim Campground

(9) Placement of 50 table and bench combinations in rim area

(10) Construction of 20 heavy log seats along Garfield and Lake trails

(11) Erection of small blacksmith shop at Annie Spring

(12) Construction of twenty table and seat combinations at Annie Spring Campground

(13) Construction of fifteen log table and bench combinations in Lost Creek Campground

(14) Construction of ten log table and fireplace combinations, cleanup, and layout of pathways in Cold Spring Campground

(15) Bank sloping of eight miles of roadway from the park’s west boundary to Annie Spring

(16) Obliteration and replanting of several dangerous parking overlook areas between park headquarters and the rim

(17) Erection of fences at the entrance of all park motorways to prohibit tourist travel

(18) Construction of fire protection truck trail from Union Peak Spur to Annie Spring

(19) Treatment of 1,200 acres of forest in vicinity of Cloudcap for blister rust disease

(20) Construction of two heavy stone motifs at the north and east entrances

A CCC “side camp” was maintained in the park during the winter of 1937-38, the enrollees engaging in snow removal from trails, roads, and buildings, interior building maintenance, and general assistance in park work.

During 1937 considerable work was conducted on the Rim Road

construction project with PWA funding under the direction of the Bureau of Public Roads. In his annual report for 1937 Superintendent Canfield described the road construction projects then underway:

Two contracts for the grading of 4.9 miles of new Rim Road were underway at the end of the year. These two units extend from Kerr Notch over the higher slopes of Dutton Ridge through Sun Notch to a point near Vidae Falls. This mileage covers a new high line route six to seven hundred feet higher than an old road in use for the past 17 years. The higher elevation opens up scenic areas of the park hitherto inaccessible and provides motorists with much wider panoramas of park and adjoining forest lands. An idea of the difficulty of the project is a rock cut 145 feet from the road gutter to the crest of the bank. Over 70% of the first two mile unit is composed of rock work and is not expected to be completed until the autumn of 1938.

A 12.3 mile unit of the Rim Road from the North Entrance to Cloudcap was rock surfaced during the year and was ready for oil treatment at the end of the year. Two units totaling 3.9 miles from Cloudcap to Kerr Notch were graded and at the end of the period were ready for rock surfacing. Invitations to bid on this job were advertised in June. A contract was to be awarded in July of the new fiscal year. With the present work underway and completed, only a unit of 3.3 miles remained at the end of the year untouched. It leads from Vidae Falls to Park Headquarters. Plans were carried forward to have this unit under contract before the end of the 1937 summer season. It is expected to have the entire rim road completed during the summer of 1939. [35]

In his annual report for 1938 Superintendent Leavitt discussed the beneficial aspects of the public works projects to park development. In particular, he singled out the contributions of the CCC, stating that much “of the work accomplished by CCC labor could otherwise not have been accomplished, or at least not for several years.” Of special interest to Leavitt were the cottages that had been built in the Sleepy Hollow employees’ cabin area. The cabins, according to Leavitt, eliminated “the use of tents and make it possible for employees to move their families in earlier in the spring than was previously possible when dependent on tents for housing.” [36]

The two CCC camps were again established at Annie Spring and Lost Creek during the summer season of 1938 and operated from July 1 to October 15. Throughout the winter of 1938-39 a “spike” camp was maintained in the park. The second floor of the Machine Shop was altered to provide accommodations for the “spike” camp. Among the activities of the enrollees were landscaping, fire motorway, trail, and campground maintenance, fire fighting, fish planting, house construction, interior building improvements, area cleanup, snow removal from trails and buildings, and woodcutting. Included in the landscaping activities of the enrollees were campground improvements, old road obliteration, installation of fifty directional signs, planting around buildings and along roads, and layout of twelve off-road parking areas with landscape treatment.

PWA funded road construction under the direction of the Bureau of Public Roads continued to be a major facet of park development operations in 1938. Grading of the 4.9-mile section of Rim Road between Kerr Notch and Vidae Falls was nearing completion, and the 3.3-mile section between Vidae Falls and park headquarters was completed. Bituminous paving (plant mix type of oil surfacing) was completed on 12.3 miles of Rim Road between the north entrance checking station and Cloudcap.

PWA funds enabled the park to extend and modernize its utility systems during 1938. These projects, which continued into 1939, included the extension of an overhead electric transmission line from park headquarters to Annie Spring and the extension and improvement of the park’s water, sewage, telephone, and electrical systems. The telephone line between park headquarters and the rim area was placed underground, and the overhead power line in the cabin area replaced by an underground line. [37]

One CCC camp was located in the park at Annie Spring from July 1 to October 15, 1939. The camp was converted from tent construction to portable, wooden barracks buildings with a new utility area. During the summer a ”spike camp” was stationed at Oregon Caves National Monument to operate a sawmill for the various proposed structures at Crater Lake, Oregon Caves, and Lava Beds.

The CCC projects at Crater Lake during 1939 were many and varied. A workshop was again located at the park for the construction of signs, and a crew of fifteen enrollees assembled, carved, and erected some 80 rustic signs to replace the former metal signs. The Rim Campground was improved with new plants and trees and development of new parking and camping sites. The interior of the fire hall at park headquarters was improved, and three employees residences constructed in 1931 were remodeled with new dormer windows, stone porches on the exteriors, downstairs walls and ceilings, bathroom fixtures, and knotty pine in the living rooms. Two footbridges were constructed at park headquarters, one leading to the Lady of the Woods and the other between the Administration Building and the employees’ cottages. Three additional employees’ cottages were partially completed. A new powder house was constructed at park headquarters, and planting, stone steps, and walkways were laid out to the rear of the Administration Building and around several park residences.

Major road construction projects were completed in the park during 1939. These projects included the grading of the Rim Road sections between Vidae Falls and park headquarters and Kerr Notch and Dutton Ridge. A fill in the Vidae Creek area was landscaped and planted with some 5,000 willows, twin berry, huckleberry, spirea, and other plants. The Sun Creek Campground Road was laid out connecting with Rim Road in the vicinity of Vidae Falls. With the completion of these projects Francis G. Lange, Resident Landscape Architect, reported in October:

Major road activity on the Rim Road is nearing completion. Grading operations are completed. The Rim drive starts at Park Headquarters and ends at the same point, a distance of thirty-two miles. The actual amount of new construction on the Rim Road takes place at the Rim and ends at Park Headquarters, a distance of 29 miles. Rim Road construction started in 1930 and it appears that final oiling will be completed by 1940 or 1941.

During construction activity from 1934 to 1939 six landscape architects have been employed. Their work has consisted of special landscape features, such as parking areas, planting, old road obliteration and other landscape details.

During 1939 the Bureau of Public Roads made location surveys throughout the park, particularly between the rim and Annie Spring and immediately west and south of Annie Spring. The surveys were for the improvement of those early park roads which had become substandard for the heavy load of year-round travel they were carrying. [38]

One CCC camp operated at Annie Spring during the summers of 1940 and 1941. The number of enrollees was greatly reduced from that of earlier years, however, and the amount of work accomplished thus declined. The activities of the enrollees continued to include landscaping, motorway maintenance, fire fighting, fish planting, cottage construction, cleanup, snow removal, and woodcutting. During the summer of 1940, for instance, enrollees razed several old buildings, constructed a new public comfort station at park headquarters and a “portable” ranger station for the east entrance, began work on a two-story frame hospital building, and performed fire hazard reduction work on the recently-acquired Yawkey Tract. In 1941 CCC personnel conducted engineering surveys for water and sewer systems, fire protection projects, and new campground proposals, continued work on the hospital, and constructed a portable ranger station at the north entrance to the park.

When the 1941 summer season at Crater Lake was over, the Annie Spring CCC camp moved to Oregon Caves National Monument. On November 23, 1941, the camp was disbanded abruptly, thus ending CCC activity at Crater Lake and surrounding areas.

The 1940 summer season witnessed the completion of the PWA-funded projects to expand and modernize the park utility systems. The overhead electric transmission line to Annie Spring and the water, sewer, telephone, and electrical systems at park headquarters and the rim area were all completed.

The Bureau of Public Roads continued to oversee major road construction projects in the park during 1940-41. Both summers witnessed operations in quarrying and crushing rock in the park for material to metal base and surface twelve miles of Rim Road from park headquarters to Kerr Notch. The five-mile stretch of road from Goodbye Bridge to the rim was seal-coated with bituminous surfacing in 1941. In September of that year Goodbye Bridge was closed to traffic for safety reasons, a steep unpaved detour road and temporary detour bridge serving in its place. The log bridge across Annie Creek was reinforced in 1941 to enable it to withstand the strain of heavy traffic. During the winter of 1941-42, however, both bridges collapsed. [39]

Throughout the war years construction and development projects at Crater Lake were reduced drastically as a result of budget cutbacks, loss of personnel to the military and war industry, and termination of the CCC and other New Deal public works programs. The park was closed for the winter in November 1942, and for the remainder of the war park operations were confined to the summer months with minimum staff and equipment “on a purely protection and maintenance basis.” Thus, construction and development were largely eliminated from the park program during the war. [40]

Some small construction projects, however, were carried out in the park during the war years. In 1943, for instance, a new boathouse for protection of the government-owned launch was constructed “at a new and more practical location on Wizard Island.” An extension to the power transformer house at park headquarters was built to provide room for a stand-by gasoline-driven electric power generator, and the power plant and generator were installed. The new hospital building was nearly completed, and 24 bank protectors were installed on Rim Road. [41]

Despite the curtailment of construction and development projects in the park during the war, regional technicians and park personnel initiated various planning studies for future development work during the postwar era. These studies included:

(1) New road locations from the south and west entrances to the rim

(2) New winter sports areas, including the Watchman, Hillman Peak, and Dutton Ridge areas

(3) Tunnel project through the rim of the crater to the lake shore

(4) New campgrounds at the Watchman, Munson Creek, and Sun Valley areas

(5) New headquarters development, covering the existing location and possible removal to the south entrance area

(6) Location of district ranger stations at the south, west, north, and east entrances

(7) Improved or additional facilities of the park operator whether in the rim area or elsewhere [42]

In January 1943 a “Report on Study for Future Headquarters Developments at Crater Lake National Park” was prepared by E.A. Davidson, Regional Chief of Planning, and R.D. Waterhouse, Regional Engineer. The study considered the question as to whether it was wiser to make rather extensive structural and layout improvements at the existing park headquarters or to construct these needed facilities at a more suitable location. Related to this question was the wisdom of removing administrative activities to any new headquarters site. As described in the report, the problem facing park management was:

When a site was selected for Park Headquarters, Crater was a summer-season operation. For some 8 or 10 years past (assuming the present War emergency to be temporary) the winter activity and use of the park has grown, and will probably continue to grow. Buildings, facilities, and circulation roadways were not designed for winter operation under an average winter snowfall of forty to fifty feet, or for snow clearance by mechanical means during winter. This winter-use places an unanticipated strain on structures even above the normal strains under such snowfall, until several structures of the utility area are described as “about to fall” and “beyond repair.” Water lines, not designed for winter, cause heavy maintenance. The job of mechanical snow removal is huge. . . . It has been found desirable to keep a gradually increasing number of men in the park for winter operation, and also to provide some facilities for winter visitors. As a consequence, the lack of good winter buildings has become acute, and the job of snow clearance almost impossible. With increased summer use, a shortage of both utility and residential buildings has developed.

Accordingly, Davidson and Waterhouse observed that it had been proposed to construct six utility and residential structures at park headquarters. These buildings included: Utilities–Machine Shop and Utility Building, Snow Equipment Shed, Cold Storage Plant; Residential–Assistant Superintendent’s Residence, Chief Clerk’s Residence, Apartment House (approximately 8 units). In line with previous master planning for the park, it had been decided that before investing funds of that magnitude the utility area must be redesigned to provide winter operations with less mechanical difficulty and physical hazard, eliminating most or all of the existing utility buildings which were approaching the limits of their usefulness.

Davidson and Waterhouse submitted three alternatives concerning the headquarters site issue. One plan proposed removing the utility area to the nearby “baseball field at the lower end of the existing headquarters utility area and converting the existing utility area space to residential uses. A second plan proposed keeping the utility area where it was, razing all buildings except the bunk and messhall and warehouse and constructing larger structures better suited for winter operations. The “baseball field” would be used for winterized residential structures. This residential area would be tied to the existing area of 8 cottages and 12 two-room cabins which was to be replaced by more modern residences. A third alternative proposed removal of the utility area and park administrative headquarters to the south entrance of the park. This new development area would include a road maintenance yard, utility area, twenty-two residential units, an administration building, a club or assembly house, and a bunk-and-mess building. After assessing the merits of the three plans, the authors concluded:

it seems clear that park policies of conservation, efficiency of year-round operation, ultimate economy of cost and maintenance, and employee living conditions and morale will all be benefited by a removal of most administrative and headquarters operations to the proposed new south entrance location. [43]

Following their report on the headquarters question, Davidson and Waterhouse prepared two other studies relating to future park development and planning. In May 1943 they prepared a “Report on Studies for Rim Area Campground Relocation,” and on August 6 Waterhouse submitted a follow-up memorandum to the Region IV Director regarding the possibility of constructing a tunnel to the lake shore. The thrust of the two reports consisted of recommendations to remove campground facilities from the existing Rim Village area to a site just below Rim Road some 1-1/2 miles northwest in the vicinity of Discovery Point. The Munson and Sun Valley vicinities were considered but rejected in favor of the Discovery Point area. From the new campground location a tunnel could be built, according to the authors, to provide easy access to the lake. The reports left open the question as to whether the park operator s concessions should be moved to a location near the proposed campground or to the water’s edge near the lower end of the tunnel. The reports contained proposals for a new trail to the lake and mechanical lifts to transport visitors to the lake shore. [44]

The years 1943-45 witnessed considerable debate and discussion in the Washington and Region Four office regarding the planning issues facing Crater Lake National Park. As a result of such discussions, several decisions were rendered during this period by NPS Director Newton B. Drury and Regional Director O.A. Tomlinson. The decisions were made, however, with the understanding that park problems were “normally fluid and should remain so, usually, until final action is necessary.” Responding to the question of whether a trail, elevator, or tunnel should be built to provide easy access to the shores of Crater Lake, Drury stated on January 13, 1944:

Long established policy which limits physical development of park areas to a minimum necessary for protecting park values and for reasonable access, and reasonable safety and comfort of visitors, definitely rules out the tunnel proposal. Likewise, since the existing trail from the rim to the lake affords accessibility, is reasonably safe, and is as easy to negotiate as are average mountain trails, there seems no need for consideration of a trail relocation such as has been proposed from time to time, or for trail improvements which involve additional construction nearby. This reasoning also rules out consideration of mechanical lifts or similar surface contrivances for reaching the shores without physical effort.

Nearly two weeks later, on January 26, 1944, Drury addressed the twin issues of whether the park should be operated on a seasonal or year-round basis and whether park headquarters should remain at its existing site or be relocated to the south entrance. In regard to these issues he concluded:

that the conservation of the park and its use, as contemplated when it was established, will be accomplished if winter use of the area is not promoted by snow removal or other means as was the case before the war. It is contemplated that winter operations in the park shall continue as at present after the war. . . . it will be desirable to continue the park headquarters at the Government Camp location, and make only such improvements or changes in the buildings as may be necessary for summer operations. . . .

On February 1, 1944, Drury addressed the issue of whether the Rim Campground should be retained and expanded or abandoned and relocated. He indicated his agreement with the studies that had recommended its abandonment.

Later on September 16 the director responded to recommendations that the existing road between park headquarters and the rim be improved and relocated. For the present the road was to remain in its existing alignment “with such widening and resurfacing as is necessary to provide for satisfactory summer travel.

Other issues facing the park related to development of concessioner facilities and the need for a visitor center/museum building. These questions were addressed in January 1945 by Tomlinson. As to whether the lodge should be permitted to remain at its existing site or be moved farther back from the rim, he observed:

It is very much doubted that the Service would require the operator to move the present building. Rather a relocation, if such were desirable, would occur only in the future when and if a new lodge is erected. The question should not and cannot be answered at this time although consideration is desirable.

He stated further that cabin development would be determined on the basis of postwar visitor needs and use. The location of a more suitable utility area for the concessioner and a gasoline station in the rim area required further study. A park visitor center/museum building on the rim was a high priority item for new construction. [45]

During the remainder of 1945 further discussions ensued concerning the status of these issues, particularly in view of the decision that Crater Lake would be operated as an all-year park. Accordingly, Drury reversed earlier policy statements by issuing directives in late 1945 and early 1946 that new all-year park headquarters be established “just within the boundary of the south entrance to the Park.” The existing park headquarters and utility area had been constructed for summer operation only and was not laid out for economical and efficient operation during the winter months, nor were any of the buildings constructed for year-round use. This area would “become the principal urban area within the Park, serving for its all-year operation, with the thought that other developed areas will be kept to a minimum, and will lead to the closing of most of the utility areas in Medford and the ultimate sale of those properties.” Accordingly, he initiated discussions with the U.S. Forest Service to acquire a tract of land from the Rogue River National Forest on which to build the new headquarters. At the same time Drury indicated his support for the reduction and ultimate elimination of camping in the rim area and enlarging camping facilities at Annie Spring. He also endorsed reconstruction and realignment of the road between park headquarters and the rim area and in the vicinity of Annie Spring. [46]

No new construction was initiated in the park for several years after the war. The lack of construction activity, according to Superintendent Leavitt, was the result of an “economy-minded Congress” whose primary purpose was “to reduce and close out war-born expansion or new bureaus and provide for an effective national defense during the Cold War.” Thus, continuing low appropriations worked hardship on the park’s budget which had “reached an all-time low during the war and now must expand to give proper protection” for accommodation of the “tremendous increase in travel.” [47]

Despite the lack of funds with which to commence a major park construction program during the postwar years, available funding permitted minor construction projects at Crater Lake. In 1948, for instance, the former Wineglass CCC camp was dismantled and the materials salvaged for use in building temporary ranger stations and checking kiosks at the park’s four entrances. The hospital building was completed in 1948, but in view of changing park needs it was converted into apartments for personnel housing. During 1951-52 nine two-room cabin quarters in the Munson Valley residential area were “winterized” with insulation, storm proofing, and improved heating facilities. Each cabin was enlarged with the addition of a new room. These improvements were designed to “increase the comfort and efficiency of these little homes” for year-round use, and resulted “in savings in operating costs both to the Government and the employees.” In 1951 a new electric-driven pump was installed in the Munson Spring pumphouse to keep the Garfield Peak reservoir filled to capacity, thus providing the rim area with sufficient water for domestic use and fire protection. [49] During 1952 a new fire lookout was constructed on Mount Scott, replacing an old building that had been erected during the 1920s, and a slope stabilization project was carried out at Anderson Point. [50] After some fifteen years of repeated requests for funding by park management, funds were made available in 1956 to erect new bridges over Annie and Goodbye creeks, the former being opened to traffic in 1956 and the latter in 1957. [51]

As related earlier, the decade following World War II witnessed ever-increasing visitation to the national parks. At the same time Congressional appropriations which had been reduced drastically during the war remained low, thus hindering the parks from developing their facilities and services to meet the ever-rising demands placed on them by the rising visitation. Not only was new development stymied but the existing park facilities and developments, most of which dated from the 1930s, were becoming obsolete and run-down. Thus in 1955 the National Park Service initiated a long-range 10-year program, designated Mission 66, that was intended to upgrade the units of the National Park System. The program was designed

to so develop and staff these priceless possessions of the American people as to permit their wisest possible use; maximum enjoyment for those who use them; and maximum protection of the scenic, scientific, wilderness, and historic resources that give them distinction.

NPS officials went on to explain the goals and objectives of the program:

Construction is an important element of the program. Modern roads, well planned trails, utilities, camp and picnic grounds, and many kinds of structures needed for public use or administration, to meet the requirements of an expected 80 million visitors in 1966, are necessary; but they are simply one means by which “enjoyment-without-impairment” is to be provided.

Under this program, outmoded and inadequate facilities will be replaced with physical improvements adequate for expected demands but so designed and located as to reduce the impact of public use on valuable and destructible features. It will provide both facilities and personnel for visitor services of the quality and quantity that the public is entitled to expect in its National Park System. It is intended to assure the fullest possible degree of protection, both to visitors and resources.

By 1966, the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the National Park Service, the program was to be completed. [52]

Thus, the Mission 66 program for Crater Lake National Park was designed to bring park facilities, services, and staffing up to appropriate National Park Service standards. Park Service officials succinctly described the problems facing the park as follows:

Developments for the safety, comfort and education of the park visitor have increased and improved over the years, but not in pace with the increased use. In fact, due to curtailed funds during World War II, park facilities deteriorated to a degree from which they have not yet recovered. In 1940, roads, trails, campgrounds and lodges, as well as personnel, were considered adequate for the 252,482 visitors. No significant additions to the operating plant have been made since 1940, yet in 1955 those same facilities, worn and depleted, were forced to serve 343,839 people. Consider the national economic picture: increased earnings, more leisure time, improved highways, faster and more comfortable transportation, and the westward population shift. It is not unreasonable to assume a travel count of 600,000 by 1966 if facilities can be provided for them. It is safe to assume that by 1966 the current inadequacy in all departments will be greatly aggravated, if public facilities are not expanded and improved. Already it has overreached the point of safety. Over-use is damaging the area.

As projected in 1956 the Mission 66 program for Crater Lake was designed to include improvements and upgrading of roads and trails, interpretive programs, camping and picnicking facilities, concession services, employee housing, maintenance buildings, and staffing. The program contemplated moving the Medford office and facilities to Munson Valley where year-round park administrative headquarters would be established.

While the road circulation system was considered adequate, road widths and curvature would be improved to handle anticipated visitation levels. Rim Road in the vicinity of Kerr Notch would be relocated. To disperse the use-load one or more fire control roads that reached important natural features would be improved and opened to public travel. Trails would be restored, and increased parking would be developed at view points and interpretive sites. A new trail from the Rim Road to the lake would be constructed in a location that would obviate hand clearing of snow and have a minimum of switchbacks for visitor safety and maintenance efficiency.

Chief among the interpretive facilities that would be built was a Visitor Center. Wayside exhibits, signs, and markers would be placed on all major roads and trails to interpret significant features and themes. The system of self-guiding trails would be expanded and improved, and the Rim Road would become a self-guided tour through the use of exhibits and markers. Research efforts would be expanded, particularly in limnology, geology, botany, zoology, and archeology. A covered walkway would be constructed to the Sinnott Memorial and the building improved for winter use.

Existing camping and picnicking facilities would be expanded and improved. Increased space for trailer camping would be provided, and a new campground at low elevation would be constructed to accommodate early summer and late fall visitors. Picnic sites would be developed at various locations around the rim to satisfy a long-felt need and serve to distribute use.

Park facilities would be improved, including enlargement of water and sanitation systems and replacement of the telephone system. Storage and maintenance buildings, employee housing, and other structures for park operations would be designed and constructed for year-round use. A total of 31 permanent residences at park headquarters and one at Annie Spring were to be constructed to replace the existing substandard employee housing. A dual-purpose building to house an elementary grade school and employee recreation center would be built near the residential area. A leased radio system would be installed, connecting vehicles and outlying stations, including fire lookouts, with park headquarters. Boat storage and service facilities would be built on the lake shore at the foot of the new lake trail, and boats would be launched and retrieved by marine railway, thus permitting removal of the unsightly boat developments on Wizard Island.

The Mission 66 program proposed increases in park staffing to 37 permanent positions and annual operating appropriations commensurate with expanded activities and responsibilities. Increased efficiency in operations, however, would be effected by supplying modern tools, equipment, and facilities to obviate increases in proportion to the anticipated increase in public use. It was estimated that 70 percent more visitors could be served more efficiently by increasing present annual appropriations only 20 percent.

The total cost of physical developments projected for Crater Lake under the Mission 66 program was $5,721,200. This figure was broken down into the following components:

Roads and trails $3,798,100
Campgrounds, picnic areas, wayside exhibits, utilities $   434,700
Visitor Center, employee housing, park operations structures $1,488,400

In addition concessioner-operated improvements, estimated at $611,500, would include enlargement of the cafeteria, forty additional sleeping units with provision for fifty more if demand warranted them, and modernization of the lodge and cafeteria kitchens.

As a result of these improvements and services, Park Service officials believed the quality of the visitors’ experience at Crater Lake would be enhanced. It was stated:

When the visitor of 1966 visits Crater Lake National Park, he will meet the same pleasant and courteous treatment he encounters today, but he will find new and better services, better facilities and better accommodations. Complete information will be easily available to assist him in planning his stay at Crater Lake, regardless of his particular interest. He will have a maximum of freedom of action, consistent with park ideals. He will find Crater Lake little different than the Crater Lake John Wesley Hillman found in 1853, except there will be facilities for his comfort, his safety and his complete enjoyment. [53]

Mission 66 construction was commenced at Crater Lake in September 1956. A contract was let to the W.H. Conrad Company of Medford to construct the new Mazama Campground one-fourth-mile south of the junction of the west and south entrance roads. In addition the contract provided for development of water and sewer systems at Annie Spring and layout of new roads, trails, and walkways in the park headquarters and residential areas. [54]

Numerous development projects were carried out at Crater Lake under the Mission 66 program during 1957-59. Six picnic sites along Rim Road with a total of 21 picnic tables and 12 pit toilets were completed. The Garfield Peak and Discovery Point trails were reconstructed, and an encasement for Annie Spring was completed. The sewer and water systems were improved at park headquarters and Annie Spring, respectively, and various construction projects were completed at Annie Spring, including erection of a checking station, layout of a new parking area, and realignment of the south and west entrance road intersection. Improvements were made to Munson Spring, and two comfort stations were constructed at Mazama Campground as well as a checking station at Annie Spring. The headquarters utility area was paved, and covered entrances were added to the Administration Building and rim comfort station. Employee residences (one 4-unit and one 2-unit) were completed at Munson Valley, and a new fire alarm system was installed in the park headquarters area. The Rim Campground was redeveloped, and a new gasoline service station and employee dormitory was constructed for the Standard Oil Company of California. The new station was opened in August 1958, the former station being razed and the site landscaped. The California-Oregon Power Company constructed a new section of power line between Annie Spring and park headquarters to ensure better continuity of service. Subsequently, a power line was extended to the Mazama Campground. [55]

The Mission 66 program continued to provide major appropriations for improvements at Crater Lake during the early 1960s. In 1960, for instance, the three principal park campgrounds were improved by adding 89 new campsites and renovating roads, tables, fireplaces, and sanitary facilities at the existing sites. That same year the Cleetwood Cove Trail from the rim to the lake was completed and opened for public use. The new trail was a much improved standard alignment compared with the former trail from the vicinity of the lodge. [56] During 1961-62 six miles of roadway between Annie Spring and the rim were reconstructed and treated with bituminous surfacing. Improvements to Mazama Campground during the summer of 1962 included completion of an electrical system, addition of 56 camping sites, and opening of a 750-seat amphitheater. That summer a parking area for the lake trail was paved, improvements were made to the Sinnott Memorial, and the water system at park headquarters was expanded to include a 150,000-gallon water reservoir, assuring an adequate domestic supply and building fire protection. Six rock pedestals at the Watchman were constructed for interpretive markers. [57]

In his annual report for fiscal year 1963 Superintendent Yeager observed that “construction projects underway at the close of the 1963 fiscal year were greater than for any previous year.” The projects included reconstruction of 10.5 miles of the south entrance road and construction of three duplex residences (6 living units), a shop and equipment storage building, and a community school building. the structures were occupied during the winter of 1963-64, Interpretive roadside markers were constructed and installed. These included 26 interpretive markers at 18 locations, 21 being routed plastic signs on stone bases and 3 being routed wooden signs. Some 20 smaller signs denoting elevations and other items of interest were also completed. Fifty-four camp sites were added to Mazama Campground and a trail to the new amphitheater was completed. A 100-automobile parking area was laid out at the head of Cleetwood Cove Trail. [58]

In October 1965 the National Park Service contracted to have a new sewer system installed in the park. The new system was to replace a septic tank system which had a drain field in the east canyon of the park. The new sewer system was placed underground across the water catchment basin which fed Munson Springs, the source for the Crater Lake water system. Three manholes were placed in the system with what were later reported to be “insecure manhole covers.” The location of this system would later be blamed for the water contamination crisis that closed the park for three weeks during the summer of 1975. [59]

With the completion of two more housing units in the Munson Valley area the Mission 66 program at Crater Lake was completed during the summer of 1966. As a result of the program, park buildings, utility systems, interpretive activities, and recreational opportunities had been improved to National Park Service standards. Moreover, the program’s accomplishments enabled the park to centralize its year-round administrative and maintenance activities at Munson Valley, all such functions having been transferred to the park in September 1964. [60]

During the remainder of the 1960s and the early 1970s construction and development programs continued at Crater Lake, although at a considerably reduced level from the Mission 66 years. In 1967, for instance, three picnic areas were constructed at lower elevations in the park, permitting early use by visitors before snow was gone from the regular campgrounds. [61] Park construction projects during the early and mid-1970s included extension of the Watchman Overlook and Sleepy Hollow sewer systems, erection of a new concessioner’ s employee dormitory, improvements to the Annie Spring water and sewer systems, reconstruction of the west entrance road, and expansion of the Rim Village utility lines. [62] Following closure of the park in 1975 because of the water contamination crisis, plans were made to construct a new permanent park water system utilizing water from Annie Spring, an uncontaminated water source. The new water system, which cost some $600,000, was placed into service during the fall of 1975. [63]

During the late 1960s an extensive major parkwide planning effort was initiated at Crater Lake–a process that would take a decade to complete. The planning effort was spearheaded by a master planning team selected in 1967 from the National Park Service’s Western Service Center in San Francisco. By the early 1970s the planning effort, which had gone through several draft stages, was taken over by a general management planning team from the Denver Service Center. [64] As a result of the lengthy planning endeavor Pacific Northwest Regional Office Director Russell E. Dickenson finally approved a general management plan for the park in December 1977.

The general management plan contained an extensive series of proposals for development of park facilities and enhancement of visitor experiences in the park. According to the plan, existing use patterns would remain essentially unchanged. Improved information, orientation, and interpretation facilities would allow for better utilization of the visitors’ time. Lodging facilities would be decreased, while camping sites would be increased. Obsolete visitor and management facilities would be removed or replaced. Intrusion of vehicle traffic on the viewing experience at Rim Village would be reduced substantially. The Rim Village area would be restored to a more natural, pedestrian-oriented environment. Accordingly six objectives were established to govern future park development. These were to:

Provide only those facilities on the crater rim which contribute directly to the visitor enjoyment and understanding of this natural wonder.

Develop an access and circulation system which aids in reducing congestion, maximizes convenience to the visitor and park management, and provides for safe travel in the park.

Provide facilities for improved interpretation, information, and orientation programs.

Provide the necessary visitor-use service facilities in an area which does not infringe upon the lake-viewing experience–facilities which can be operated efficiently on a year-long basis.

Provide all necessary access for the handicapped to facilities and features throughout the park, and devise ways and means to enlarge upon the experience of handicapped visitors.

Provide efficient, economical, and environmentally suitable housing and administrative facilities for permanent and seasonal park employees.

The plan made a number of proposals to achieve these objectives. In terms of park accommodations capacity the plan recommended retention of the lodge for the remainder of its useful life, removal of the housekeeping cabins and fourplexes, and increases in the number of camping sites at the Mazama and Lost Creek campgrounds. The plan proposed widening of some fourteen miles of the north entrance road and west rim drive from eighteen to twenty feet minimum, repair of lake overlooks, and the addition of a bicycle lane on the one-way East Rim Drive.

Various recommendations were proposed for Rim Village improvements, the thrust of which were to remove development and return portions of the area to a natural state. It was recommended to remove the rental cabins, relocate some 185 parking spaces from the rim to the cabin area, restore some eight acres of rim parking area to pedestrian green space, construct a new lodge access road, and reorganize the existing two-acre lodge parking lot. It was proposed to construct an all-season interpretive center at Rim Village, remove the existing Exhibit and Community buildings, replace four obsolete comfort stations with two new ones, and remove excess roads in the picnic area. All new development, with the exception of the lodge access road, was to occur on existing developed land. All told, some 10 to 14 acres of development was to be removed from Rim Village with 8-12 acres being returned to a more natural state.

The capacity of Mazama Campground was to be expanded by the addition of 52 walk-in sites, central parking, and two comfort stations on 12-15 acres of partially-disturbed land. Other recommended improvements to the campground included relocation of a registration kiosk, replacement of an employee cabin with an employee residence, and construction of a camper services building.

Proposals for Munson Valley included replacement of obsolete employee housing and removal of obsolete maintenance structures. Replacement of facilities was to occur on existing developed sites. All told, a probable decrease in total land use was anticipated as a result of removal of some maintenance structures. Additional storage structures were to be added to the maintenance storage area in the southern panhandle of the park.

Various proposals were designed to upgrade the park facilities at the north entrance station. Water collection/storage system and sewage treatment facilities were to be added at the north entrance. An obsolete employee cabin was to be removed and replaced with new residences near the northern perimeter of the park. An information/orientation facility with parking area would be constructed. Two to four additional acres of land would be required for the north entrance developments. [65]

Active construction and development operations continued at Crater Lake during the late 1970s and 1980s, designed in part to follow recommendations in the general management plan. In 1979 construction of West Rim Drive was completed, thus improving automobile circulation. During the early 1980s life-safety measures were carried out at the lodge to assure visitor protection. Various improvements to park housing and recreational facilities for personnel were begun in 1984. In 1983 planning was commenced for extensive structural renovation of the Ranger Dormitory, the Mess Hall, and the Administration Building. Actual work on the Ranger Dormitory and the Mess Hall did not begin until 1985 and on the Administration Building until 1986.

The adaptive rehabilitation of these buildings restored their outstanding architectural features, while making them more usable for contemporary purposes. It has also resulted in a new appreciation of the merit of the Munson Valley structures among the park staff. In

November 1986 the park administrative offices were moved into the remodelled Mess Hall, which was renamed the Canfield Building. Two months later, the Interpretive Division moved into the remodelled Ranger Dormitory, which was renamed the Steel Center. Interior remodelling of the Administration Building was completed in October 1987. The

administrative offices then moved back to the Administration Building, which was renamed the Sager Building. [66]

The 1977 General Management Plan left the question of lodging open for resolution at such time as the existing lodge had outlived its useful life. In February 1984 an NPS planning document described the status of the lodge and Park Service planning initiatives related to its future utilization:

Extensive studies . . . have indicated that the existing lodge cannot be renovated for public lodging in a cost-effective manner. Costs to provide structural stability and bring guest rooms up to modest contemporary size have escalated to nearly $8.6 million in 1984. The number of rooms would have to be reduced from 80 to approximately 56. In addition, the stability of the caldera in the lodge area is questionable. Although a catastrophic failure cannot be predicted, continued movement will require annual (and sometimes extensive) maintenance. Extensive improvements have been made to increase visitor safety, but ultimately, its use as a hotel must be discontinued. . . .

It is recognized that the development of alternative lodging facilities could very likely lead to a decision to demolish the lodge; however, it must be emphasized that this decision has not been made. The National Park Service intends to pursue a thorough review of alternative uses and funding sources for the lodge before making a determination as to whether the lodge has reached the end of its useful life.

In conjunction with the lodge studies an NPS planning team from the Denver Service Center began formulating a development concept plan for the Annie Spring-Rim Village corridor of the park. This plan was to provide guidance for the orderly progression of improvements within that portion of the park and constitute an amendment to theGeneral Management Plan. The development concept plan was necessary because desired actions contained in the approved General Management Plan had been delayed while the lodging issue remained unresolved. Although the emphasis in the proposals for the development concept plan was on lodging facilities, the major result of the new planning effort would be a significant improvement in the visitor experience in the Rim Village area and the reduction of conditions having a negative impact on the natural environment and aesthetics of the Rim Village area.

The development concept plan effort had four principal objectives. These were:

To provide a quality, year-round interpretive program
To provide a quality lodging/camping experience
To reduce visual intrusions/congestion in the Rim Village area
To reduce environmental impacts in the Rim Village area that could affect the Crater Lake ecosystem

To obtain these objectives the planning effort was based on seven underlying assumptions:

An adequate facility is needed within the park to provide audiovisual program, exhibit, and information services for summer and winter visitors.

A safe way to view the lake in the winter is essential.

Access to the Rim Village area in the winter cannot be guaranteed at all times.

Overnight lodging in the park is a desirable visitor experience; year-round lodging should be provided if feasible.

Some variety in accommodations and price range should be provided.

The existing lodge cannot be renovated to provide continued lodging in a cost-effective manner; alternative uses for the lodge structure and the possibility of its demolition will be explored.

Parking/roads will be removed from the Rim Village area to the extent feasible.

Any new construction carried out in the park under the development concept plan would follow design guidelines based on the rustic architectural theme already established in the park. The guidelines would address the basic principles of the rustic style and significant features of the style’s historical application in the park. [67]

By the spring of 1985 it had become clear that all of the issues addressed in the February 1984 planning document could not be resolved in a timely manner. Thus, anInterim Development Concept Plan incorporating noncontroversial elements of the document was approved in May 1985. This interim plan contained development and expansion proposals for the Annie Creek/Mazama Campground, Munson Valley, and Rim Village areas. New studies on the lodging issue and rehabilitation of the existing lodge for “rustic” accommodations were to be conducted. Camper services were to be provided adjacent to the Mazama Campground in the area south of the campground entrance road, including a general store, snack service, shower and laundry facilities, gas station, and registration office for the budget cabins. The cabins would be developed next to the camper services, replacing the deteriorated cold water cabins in the Rim Village area. Up to 50 additional camp sites would be designed for the Mazama Campground, and a group campsite was slated at the abandoned Annie Spring Campground, pending studies to determine if there was potential for such development to contaminate the park water source at Annie Spring.

The plan called for various changes at Munson Valley. Visitor information services would be relocated from the Administration Building to the adjacent former Ranger Dormitory. This structure was already in process of being remodeled to provide additional staff offices and work space in addition to larger visitor information facilities. The existing gasoline station was to be removed and the site redeveloped to provide a landscaped parking area.

Several improvements were planned for the Rim Village area. These included removal of the dilapidated cold water cabins behind the cafeteria building and the connection of all facilities in Rim Village to the Munson Valley wastewater treatment system. [68]

After publication of the interim development concept plan various preservationist groups became actively involved in efforts to save the lodge. The immediate objective of the groups was to prolong the decision process on the fate of the lodge and the preparation of a development concept plan supplement with four alternatives for the development of lodging on the rim. As a consequence, a contract was let to Broome, Orinqdulph, O’Toole, Rudolf, Boles and Associates to prepare a technical analysis report for the rehabilitation of the lodge, and the National Park Service undertook a planning project to produce a new development concept plan supplement.

Appendix A13: Description Of Water Supply, Telephone System, Roads, and Trail System, 1918
Appendix B13: Physical Improvements, 1928
Appendix C13: Experiences Of A CCC Enrollee At Camp Wineglass, 1934