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Crater Lake National Park: Administrative History by Harlan D. Unrau and Stephen Mark, 1987

 

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PART I: INTRODUCTION

1. Material for this chapter was extracted from two principal sources: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Historic Resource Study, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, by Linda W. Greene, June 1984, and U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, “Statement for Management, Crater Lake National Park,” March 11, 1983, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center, National Park Service.


CHAPTER 1

1. Portland Oregonian, June 7, 1903, printed in Steel Points, I (January, 1907), pp. 77-79. Just before his death in 1915 Hillman reminisced about his life experiences and discovery of Crater Lake with Bentley B. Mackay. The reminiscences were published in the North Baton Rouge Journal. See Bentley B. Mackay, “Reminiscences of John Wesley Hillman, Famous Forty-Niner and Discoverer of Crater Lake. . . . ,” April 19, 1915, William G. Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, No. 41, Vol. 9, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

2. Historic Resource Study, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, pp. 17-18.

3. Oregon Sentinel, November 8, 1862, printed in Steel Points, (January, 1907), pp. 85-86.

4. F.B. Sprague, “Lake Majesty,” August 25, 1865, Central Classified Files, 1907-49, Record Group 79, Records of the National Park Service, National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D.C. Other accounts of the Sprague visit to the lake that contain varying details may be found in Ashland Tidings, February 27, 1888; Gold Hill News, July 16, 1931; and Portland Oregonian, September 1, 1913, in William G. Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, No. 21, Vol. 1, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

5. Oregon Sentinel, August 12, 1865.

6. M.W. Gorman, “The Discovery and Early History of Crater Lake,” Mazama, I (1897), 156.

7. Oregon Sentinel, August 21, 1869.

8. Howard Place and Marian Place, The Story of Crater Lake National Park (Caldwell, Idaho, 1974), p. 24.

9. Oregon Sentinel, September 12, 1868.

10. Gorman, “Discovery and Early History of Crater Lake,” 157-58, and Place and Place,Story of Crater Lake, pp. 24-26.

11 . Stanton C . Lapham, The Enchanted Lake: Mount Mazama and Crater Lake in Story History and Legend (Portland, 1931), pp. 70-71, and Gorman, “Discovery and Early History of Crater Lake,” 158.

12. U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological History of Crater Lake: Crater Lake National Park (Washington, 1912), p. 3.

13. Place and Place, Story of Crater Lake, pp. 27-28.

14. Gorman, “Discovery and Early History of Crater Lake,” 157.

15. Historic Resource Study, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, p. 75.

16. Ruth Teiser and Catherine Harroun, “First Crater Lake Photograph,” National Parks Magazine, XXXVI (September, 1962), 14-16, and Place and Place, Story of Crater Lake, pp. 28-34. One of the party members, W. Kuykendall, wrote his reminiscences of the expedition. His reminiscences and other papers relating to the early exploration and visitation to the lake may be found in the W. Kuykendall Collection (Mss. 2130) at the Oregon Historical Society, Portland.

17. Klamath Falls Evening Herald, October 20, 1908; Ruth Kirk, Exploring Crater Lake Country (Seattle, 1975), p. 39; and Don C. Fisher, “The Story Behind the Scenery . . . Crater Lake,” Oregon Motorist (September, 1931).

18. Ashland Times, September 14, 1877.

19. J.S. Diller, “Crater Lake, Oregon,” Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, July 1897 (Washington, 1898), p. 370.


CHAPTER 2

1. Quoted in Place and Place, Stor of Crater Lake, pp. 36-37. Also see “Crater Lake,”Steel Points, I August, 1925), n.p.

2. Place and Place, Story of Crater Lake, pp. 39-40.

3. Petition to the President of the United States, December 21, 1885, William G. Steel Correspondence Collection, Letter File 1, Item 213, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

4. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, 3 vols. April, 1986, I, 1.

5. Lamar to the President, January 30, 1886, and Assistant Secretary, Department of the Interior to Commissioner, General Land Office, February 1, 1886, Rogue River Files, National Forests, Division R, Record Group 49, Records of the General Land Office, National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D.C. Also see ‘Crater Lake,” Steel Points, I (January, 1907) 37.

6. S. 1111, Legislative History for Crater Lake, I, 33-34.

7. H.R. 5075, Legislative History for Crater Lake, I, 35-37.

8. C.E. Dutton, “Crater Lake, Oregon, A Proposed National Reservation,” Science, VII (February 26, 1886), 179-82.

9. Legislative History for Crater Lake, I, 1-2.

10. Place and Place, Story of Crater Lake, pp. 41-46; Gorman, “Discovery and Early History of Crater Lake,” 158-59; “Crater Lake,” Steel Points, I (August, 1925), n.p.; “Crater Lake,” Steel Points, I (January, 1907), 39-42; and Mary Osborn Douthit, ed., The Souvenir of Western Women (Portland, 1905), pp. 13-15.

11. Powell to Plumb, February 9, 1888, Steel Scrapbooks, No. 21, Vol. I, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

12. S. 16, Legislative History for Crater Lake, I, 2, 38-39.

12. Dolph to Steel, February 14, 1888, Steel Scrapbooks, No. 21, Vol. I, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

13. S. 1817, Legislative History for Crater Lake, I, 40-41.

14. Legislative History for Crater Lake, I, 3. On September 1, 1888, Steel, along with E.D. Dewert of Portland and S.S. Nicolini of Austria, placed 37 rainbow trout minnows in the lake. The men had carried the minnows from Gordon’s Ranch on the Rogue River some 50 miles distant. These were the first fish to be planted in the lake. “Crater Lake,”Steel Points, I (January, 1907), 42.

15. W.G. Steel, The Mountains of Oregon (Portland, 1890), pp. 12, 17, 29.

16. Legislative History for Crater Lake, I, 4-5, 42-52.


CHAPTER 3

1. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, Theme XIX, Conservation of Natural Resources, 1963, pp. 2-19.

2. Ibid., pp. 22-23, and Horace M. Albright and Frank J. Taylor, “Oh, Ranger!”: A Book About the National Parks (Palo Alto, 1928), p. 121.

3. Theme XIX, Conservation of Natural Resources, pp. 29, 35-37.

4. Ibid., pp. 9, 32-34.

5. Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience (Lincoln, 1979), p. 65.

6. Richard B. Morris, ed., Encyclopedia of American History: Bicentennial Edition (New York, 1976), p. 637, and Theme XIX, Conservation of Natural Resources, pp. 73-74.

7. Cited in Charles R. Van Hise and Loomis Havemeyer, eds., Conservation of Our Natural Resources (New York, 1933), p. 242, and Benjamin H. Hibbard, A History of Public Land Policies (New York, 1924), p. 530.

8. Samuel P. Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement, 1890-1920 (Cambridge, 1959), p. 36.

9. “Supplement to the Revised Statutes of the United States, Vol. I, 1874-1891, Chapter 559, in Steel Scrapbooks, Forest Reserves, No. 24, Vol. I, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park. For further data on the history and development of forest reserves in the northwestern United States see E.H. MacDaniels, “Twenty-Five National Forests o North Pacific Region,” Oregon Historical Quarterly, XLII (September, 1941), 247-55.

10. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1895, I, CIV-CV, and American Forestry Association, “The Forest Reservation Policy,” ca. 1897, in Steel Scrapbooks, Forest Reserves, No. 25, Vol. 2, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

11. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1902, I, 19-20.

12. Gifford Pinchot, Breaking New Ground (New York, 1947), p. 85.

13. Hibbard, History of Public Land Policies, p. 532.

14. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1897, I, 83-84.

15. Theme XIX, Conservation of Natural Resources, p. 76.

16. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1892, I, V.

17. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1893, I, LX-LXI.

18. Savery to Secretary of the Interior, July 23, 1892, RG 49, Division “R,” National Forests, Willamette, Part 4.

19. Laws of Oregon, 1893, p. 887.

20. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1894, I, XLII.

21. Ibid., I, 95. A copy of the May 12, 1894, public notice (actually dated April 14) may be seen in Appendix B.

22. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1896, I, XII-XIII.

23. John Muir, “The National Parks and Forest Reservations,” Harper’s Weekly, XLI (June 5, 1897), 566.

24. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Forest Reservations and the Protection of Game, Forest Policy For the Forested Lands of the United States, 55th Cong., 1st Sess., 1897, S. Doc. 105, pp. 20-23, 33-34. Also see “A Forest Policy in Suspense,” Atlantic Monthly, LXXX (August, 1897), 268-71, for data on this subject.

25. “An Act Making Appropriations for Sundry Civil Expenses of the Government for the Fiscal Year Ending June Thirtieth, Eighteen Hundred and Ninety-Eight, and for other purposes,” in Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1897, I, CXIV-CXVII.

26. Rules and Regulations Governing Forest Reserves Established Under Section 24 of the Act of March 3, 1891 (26 Stats., 1095.), Washington, 1897.

27. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1897, I, 85-86.

28. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1898, I, 84, 91-92, 97-100.

29. Laws of Oregon, 1895, p. 632. At the same time the state legislature requested that a guardian be appointed to protect the reserve.

30. Mitchell to Lamoreaux, November 30, 1895, RG 49, Division “R,” National Forests, Willamette, Part 4.

31. Commissioner, General Land Office to Secretary of the Interior, March 6, 1896, RG 49, Division “R,” National Forests, Willamette, Part 4. Later on May 7, 1897, the members of the Oregon congressional delegation sent a letter to Secretary of the Interior Cornelius N. Bliss supporting the subdivision of the reserve as outlined by Mitchell as well as further relief of the sheepherders from departmental regulations. McBride, Tongue, and Ellis to Bliss, May 7, 1897, RG 49, Division “R,” National Forests, Willamette, Part 4. Also see John Muir, “The National Parks and Forest Reservations,”Harper’s Weekly, XLI (June 5, 1897), 566, and William G. Steel, “Cascade Range Forest Reserve,” March 2, 1897, in Steel Scrapbooks, Forest Reserves, No. 25, Vol. 2, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

32. Lapham, Enchanted Lake, pp. 116-20. Earlier in October 1887 Steel had played a leading role in the organization of the Oregon Alpine Club to promote and preserve the scenic beauty of Oregon.

33. U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Public Lands, National Park in the State of Oregon, 57th Cong., 1st Sess., 1902, H. Rept. 872, p. 3.

34. Earl Morse Wilbur, “Description of Crater Lake,” Mazama, I (1897),

139-50. For the reminiscences of other travelers to Crater Lake during the 1890s see “Story of An Early Trip to Crater Lake, 1895, Party Led by J.C. Pendleton, From Table Rock, Oregon,” and A.E. Voorhies, “First Trip to Crater Lake” [1899], CRLA-History-Miscellaneous, Division of Interpretation Files, Crater Lake National Park.

35. J.S. Diller, “Crater Lake, Oregon,” Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 1897, pp. 378-79, and H.R.M., “Crater Lake, Oregon,” Nature, LVII (February 17, 1898), 376.

36. Ibid., p. 379. Later on December 16, 1897, S.B. Ormsby, Special Agent and Supervisor, prepared an extensive report on the timber resources of the reserve. Ormsby to Hermann, December 16, 1897, RG 49, Division “R,” National Forests, Willamette, Part 2.

37. Frederick V. Colville, “Sheep-Grazing In the Cascade Forest Reserve of Oregon,” in S. Doc. 189, pp. 119-59. Also see Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture, 1898, pp. 54, 187-88.

38. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, I, 108.

39. H.R.M., “Crater Lake, Oregon,” 375.

40. “Report on the Survey and Examination of Forest Reserves (March), 1898,” in S. Doc. 189, p. 69. The full text of the report dealing with the Cascade Range Forest Reserve may be seen in Appendix D.

41. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1901, I, 115, 445-46.


CHAPTER 4

1. H.R. 7200, Legislative History for Crater Lake, pp. 53-56.

2. U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Public Lands, National Park in the State of Oregon, 55th Cong., 2d Sess., 1898, H. Rept. 613, pp. 1-5.

3. H.R. 2976, Legislative History for Crater Lake, pp. 57-59, and U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Public Lands, National Park in the State of Oregon, 56th Cong., 1st Sess., 1900, H. Rept. 533, pp. 1-5.

4. Congressional Record, House, 57th Cong., 1st Sess., December 10,1901, Vol. 35, Pt. 1, p. 247.

5. Congressional Record, House, 57th Cong., 1st Sess., April 19, 1902, Vol. 35, Pt. 5, pp. 4448-49.

6. Coquille Herald, February 4, 1902, Crater Lake Scrapbook, Vol. 2, Pt. 1, 1893-1903, William G. Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, 1885-1934 (Microfilm), Oregon Historical Society, Portland.

7. Evening Telegram, March 15, 1902, ibid. Many organizations supported the bill and petition drive. One of these was the Oregon Historical Society. “Minutes of the Annual Meeting,” Oregon Historical Quarterly, LXII (December 1961), 417-18, and “Minutes of the Annual Meeting,” Oregon Historical Quarterly, LXIV (December 1963), 361.

8. One such article was Caspar W. Hodgson, “Crater Lake by Day and Night,” Sunset, IX (May, 1902), 68-72.

9. U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Public Lands, National Park in the State of Oregon, 57th Cong., 1st Sess., 1902, H. Rept. 872,pp. 1-5, and Congressional Record, House, 57th Cong., 1st Sess., March 11, 1902, Vol. 35, Pt. 3, p. 2663.

10. Portland Oregonian, April 20, 1902, Crater Lake Scrapbook, Vol. 2, Pt. 1, 1893-1903, William G. Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, 1885-1934, Oregon Historical Society, andCongressional Record, House, 57th Cong.,1st Sess., March 14, 1902, Vol. 35, Pt. 3, p. 2804.

11. Congressional Record, House, 57th Cong., 1st Sess., April 19, 1902, Vol. 35, Pt. 5, pp. 4448-50.

12. Congressional Record, House, 57th Cong., 1st Sess., April 21, 1902, Vol. 35, Pt. 5, p. 4453.

13. Tongue to Steel, April 21, 1902, Steel Correspondence Collection, Letter File 2, Item 21G, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park. On April 15, Senator Mitchell introduced a Crater Lake park bill (S. 5261) that included the prohibition on mining and the sections for policing the reservation with United States marshals and military personnel. The bill, however, was reported adversely on April 28 and received no further consideration. S. 5261, Legislative History for Crater Lake, 63-65.

14. Congressional Record, House, 57th Cong., 1st Sess., April 21, 1902, Vol. 35, Pt. 5, p. 4478.

15. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Public Lands, National Park in the State of Oregon, 57th Cong., 1st Sess., 1902, S. Rept. 1318,pp. 1-5, and Congressional Record, Senate, 57th Cong., 1st Sess., April 29, 1902, Vol. 35, Pt. 5, p. 4799.

16. Congressional Record, Senate, 57th Cong., 1st Sess., May 9, 1902, Vol. 35, Pt. 5, pp. 5222-23.

17. Steel to Roosevelt, May 10, 1902, Steel Correspondence Collection, Letter File 2, Item 6A, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

18. Congressional Record, House, 57th Cong., 1st Sess., May 22, 1902, Vol. 35, Pt. 6, p. 5872.

19. 32 Stat. 202. A copy of the act may be seen in Appendix A4.

20. Annual Report of the Department of the Interior, 1902, 142-43.


PART II: INTRODUCTION

1. General Services Administration, National Archives and Records Service, Preliminay Inventories, Number 166, Records of the National Park Service, comp. by Edward E. Hill, 1966, p. 1.


CHAPTER 5

1. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Centennial Edition: National Park Service Officials, March 1, 1972, p. 51. Arant received official notification of his appointment on October 13, 1902. A biographical sketch of Arant may be found in Appendix A5.

2. Copies of these regulations may be seen in Appendix B.

3. Copies of these regulations may be seen in Appendixes C and D, respectively.

4. Report on Wind Cave, Crater Lake, Sullys Hill, and Platt National Parks, Casa Grande Ruin and Minnesota National Forest Reserve, 1908 (Washington, 1909), p. 6, and Report on Wind Cave, Crater Lake, Sullys Hill, and Platt National Parks, and Casa Grande Ruin, 1909 (Washington, 1909), p. 6.

5. Ibid.

6. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1918, p. 218.

7. Proceedings of the National Park Conference Held at the Yellowstone National Park, September 11 and 12, 1911 (Washington, 1912), p. 201.

8. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1918, p. 218.


CHAPTER 6

1. Annual Report of the Department of the Interior, 1902, I 142-43.

2. Annual Report of the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, to the Secretary of the Interior, 1903, pp. 3-8, in Annual Reports of the Crater Lake National Park – Laws and Regulations, Vol. I, 1902-1911, Natural Resources Library, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

3. Annual Report of the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, to the Secretary of the Interior, 1904, pp. 3-11, in Annual Reports of the Crater Lake National Park, I, 1902-1911.

4. A transportation “first” occurred during the summer of 1905 when William Hudson, a Medford garage owner, reached the rim in his Buick passenger car. Despite the description of the road as being of easy grade and comfortable scanty details of Hudson’s ordeal to reach the lake indicate that travel in the area was extremely difficult. Place and Place, Story of Crater Lake, p. 76.

5. Report of the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park, Oregon to the Secretary of the Interior for the Year Ended June 30, 1905 (Washington, 1905), pp. 5-12, in Annual Reports of the Crater Lake National Park, I, 1902-1911, and Arant to Secretary of the Interior, April 21, 1913, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 208-06, Part 1, Crater Lake, Rules & Regulations, Fishing & Hunting.

6. Report of the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, to the Secretary of the Interior, 1906, pp. 5-13, in Annual Reports of the Crater Lake National Park, I, 1902-1911. Also see Portland Oregonian, November 7, 1906, Vertical Files, Oregon Historical Society, Portland.

7. “Crater Lake National Park,” Steel Points, I (April, 1907), 136-37.

8. Steel to the Commercial Bodies of Southern Oregon, March 26, 1907, RG 79, Letters Received by the Office of the Secretary of the Interior Relating to National Parks, 1872-1907, Crater Lake, 167-1907.

9. Report on Wind Cave, Crater Lake, Sullys Hill, Platt, and Mesa Verde National Parks and Casa Grande Ruin, 1907 (Washington, 1908), pp. 4-5, in Annual Reports of the Crater Lake National Park, I, 1902-11. Also see Salem Journal, March 23, 1907, andDaily Abstract, March 19, 1907, Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, No. 35, Vol. 3, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park. Also see RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 12-3-8, Part 1, Parks, Reservations & Antiquities, Crater Lake National Park, Privileges, Crater Lake Company; Portland Oregonian, July 27, 1907; and Salem Journal, July 29, 1907.

10. Report on Wind Cave, Crater Lake, Sullys Hill, and Platt National Parks, Casa Grande Ruin and Minnesota National Forest Reserve, 1908 (Washington, 1909), pp. 5-8, in Annual Reports of the Crater Lake National Park, I, 1902-11, and Arant to Secretary of the Interior, April 24, 1908, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 208-09, Part 1, Crater Lake, Rules & Regulations, Livestock.

11. Report on Wind Cave, Crater Lake, Sullys Hill, and Platt National Parks, and Casa Grande Ruin 1909 (Washington, 1909), pp. 5-7. In September 1909 Frank Dillon of Fort Klamath received a one-year permit to sell souvenir post cards and views in the park. RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 12-3, Parks, Reservations & Antiquities, Crater Lake National Park, Privileges, Frank Dillon.

12. Steel to Bourne, May 12, 25, 1909, Steel Correspondence Collection, Letter File 2, Items 47, 48, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

13. Stephen T. Mather, Assistant to the Secretary to Mark Daniels, General Superintendent, National Parks, April 19, 1915, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 12-3, Part 1, Parks, Reservations and Antiquities, Crater Lake, Telephone & Telegraph Service.

14. Proceedings of the National Park Conference, 1911, pp. 38-39. Efforts by Steel and the Crater Lake Company to ensure exclusive transportation privileges in the park are documented in RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 12-3, Parks, Reservations & Antiquities, Crater Lake National Park, Privileges, Win. H. Hodson and File No. 12-3-8, Part 1, Parks, Reservations & Antiquities, Crater Lake National Park, Privileges, Klamath Development Company. Also see RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 12-3-8, Parks, Reservations and Antiquities, Crater Lake National Park, Privileges, Crater Lake Company for contracts and related data for this period.

15. Lease to Crater Lake Company, 1913 (Washington, 1913), RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, Privileges, Crater Lake Company (Proceedings against Parkhurt), 1922. The concession for transporting visitors in the park by the Crater Lake Company continued to be renewed annually with each automobile being issued a license at a cost of $10.

16. Earlier on February 23, 1909, the Oregon State legislature had passed an act appropriating $100,000 to aid in the construction of a state road from the Pacific Ocean via Crater Lake to the Idaho boundary and to provide for the appointment of a commissioner to supervise expenditure of such funds and superintend construction of the road. Laws of Oregon, 1909, p. 278. Also see RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 12-3, Parks, Reservations & Antiquities, Crater Lake National Park, Privileges, J.W. Stephenson and File No. 12-3-8, Part 1, Parks, Reservations & Antiquities, Crater Lake National Park, Privileges, Klamath Development Company.

17. Material for the 1910-12 period, unless otherwise stated, was extracted from Report of the Superintendent of the Crater Lake National Park to the Secretary of the Interior, 1910, pp. 5-20; and Report of the Superintendent of the Crater Lake National Park to the Secretary of the Interior, 1911, pp. 5-19, in Annual Reports of the Crater Lake National Park, I, 1902-11, and Report of the Superintendent of the Crater Lake National Park, 1912, in Annual Report of the Department of the Interior, 1912, I, 721-34. Also see Proceedings of the National Park Conference Held At the Yosemite National Park, October 14, 15, and 16, 1912 (Washington, 1912), pp. 122-29 for a discussion of automobiles in the park.

18. L.F. Schmeckebier, “Our National Parks,” National Geographic, XXIII (June, 1912), 542.

19. Geological History of Crater Lake: Crater Lake National Park, 1912.

20. U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of the Secretary, General Information Regarding Crater Lake National Park, Season of 1912, pp. 1-10. Copies of the general statement, principal points of interest, and two maps showing routes to the park and points of interest in the park may be seen in Appendix B.

21. U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Public Lands, Crater Lake National Park, Oreg.: Letter From the Acting Secretary of War . . . 62d Cong., 2d Sess., 1911, H. Doc. 328, p. 3.


CHAPTER 7

1. Edward W. Dixon, Inspector to Secretary of the Interior, February 15, 1913, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 204.010, Part 1, Crater Lake Inspections By Field Officers, and Steel to Thompson, July 15, 1912, Steel Correspondence Collection, Letter File 2, Item 266, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park. The report by Dixon contains interesting vignettes of park operations and conditions. Excerpts from the report may be found in Appendix A.

2. Steel to Arant, November 30, 1912, Steel Correspondence Collection, Letter File 2, Item 37, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

3. Arant to Steel, December 24, 1912, Steel Correspondence Collection, Letter File 2, Item 36, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

4. Steel to Arant, December 26, 1912, Steel Correspondence Collection, Letter File 2, Item 43, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

5. Steel to Arant, January 15, 1913, Steel Correspondence Collection, Letter File 2, Item 42, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

6. Arant to Steel, January 15, 1913, Steel Correspondence Collection, Letter File 2, Item 45, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

7. Portland Journal, February 7, March 5, 10, 1913; and Portland Oregonian, March 22, 1913; and Klamath Falls Northwestern, May 25, 1913, Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, No. 37, Vol. 5, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

8. Steel to Chamberlain, March 1, 1913, Steel Scrapbooks, No. 37, Vol. 5, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

9. Klamath Falls Northwestern, June 13, 18, 1913, and Mail Tribune, June 10, 12, 13, July 10, 1913, Steel Scrapbooks, No. 37, Vol. 5, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

10. Steel to Chamberlain, July 22, 1913, Steel Correspondence Collection, Letter File 2, Item 215, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

11. U.S. ex rel. William F. Arant, Appellant Vs. Franklin K. Lane,

Secretary of the Interior, No. 2, 853, In the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 201-006, Part 1, Crater Lake, Administration, Superintendent, 1917-29.

12. Steel to White, August 16, 1913, Steel Correspondence Collection, Letter File 2, Item 297, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

13. Horace M. Albright, The Birth of the National Park Service: The Founding Years, 1913-33 (Salt Lake City, 1985), p. 65.


CHAPTER 8

1. “Crater Lake National Park,” CRLA-History-Miscellaneous, Division of Interpretation Files, Crater Lake National Park.

2. RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 12-3, Part 1, Parks, Reservations and Antiquities, Crater Lake National Park, Privileges, H.J. Boyd.

3. Quoted in Salem Capitol Journal, September 3, 1955, Vertical files, Oregon State Library, Salem.

4. For further data on the topic of park expansion see Secretary, Grants Pass Commercial Club to Senator _____, November 28, 1914, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 602, Boundaries, Federal Records Center, National Archives and Records Service, Seattle.

5. Unless otherwise noted material for the 1913-16 period was extracted from Report of the Superintendent of the Crater Lake National Park, 1913, in Annual Report of the Department of the Interior, 1913, I, 803-16; Report of the Superintendent of the Crater Lake National Park to the Secretary of the Interior, 1914, pp. 1-12; Report of the Superintendent of the Crater Lake National Park, 1915, in Annual Report of the Department of the Interior, 1915, I, 991-98; and Crater Lake National Park, 1916, inAnnual Report of the Department of the Interior, 1916, I, 806-09. Also see “National Parks,” Sierra Club Bulletin, IX (June, 1915), 320, and U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of the Secretary, Forests of Crater Lake National Park (Washington, 1916).

6. U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of the Secretary, General Information Regarding Crater Lake National Park, Season of 1913, pp. 1-11

7. U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of the Secretary, General Information Regarding Crater Lake National Park, Season of 1914, pp. 1, 4-5.

8. “Crater Lake,” Ladd & Bush Quarterly, II (December, 1914), 11-13, Vertical Files, Oregon Historical Society, Portland.

9. U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of the Secretary, The Crater Lake National Park, Season of 1915, pp. 1-17. In 1980 the Oregon Historical Quarterly published the reminiscences of Truman B. Cook, who was an employee of the Crater Lake Company in 1915 in charge of operating the boats on the lake. Truman B. Cook, “Crater Lake, 1915”, Oregon Historical Quarterly, LXXXI (Spring, 1980), 43-56.


PART III: INTRODUCTION

1. Portland Oregonian, September 2, 1916, Vertical Files, Oregon Historical Society, Portland.

2. Mark Daniels, “Crater Lake National Park,” American Forests, XXII (October, 1916), 586.

3. Aubrey Drury, “Crater Lake National Park,” Sunset, XXXVIII (April, 1917), 92.

4. “Crater Lake National Park,” p. 3, in U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, The National Parks Portfolio, by Robert Sterling Yard (Washington, 1917), p. 3.

5. Robert Sterling Yard, The Book of the National Parks (New York, 1919), pp. 184-85.

6. Henry O. Reik, A Tour of America’s National Parks (New York, 1920), p. 117.


CHAPTER 9

1. Laws of Oregon, 1920, Vol. II, p. 3487. A copy of the act may be seen in Appendix A.

2. Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, I, 9.

3. Lane to Ferris, May 3, 1916, in U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Public Lands,Lands Within Crater Lake National Park, 64th Cong., 1st Sess., 1916, H. Rept. 841, p. 1.

4. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Public Lands, Lands Within Crater Lake National Park, 64th Cong., 1st Sess., 1916, S. Rept. 656, p. 1.

5. Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, I, 10. A copy of the law may be seen in Appendix B.

6. U.S Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Laws Relating to the National Park Service, The National Parks and Monuments, 1933, pp. 13, 116.

7. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Public Lands and Surveys, Accepting Certain Tracts of Land in Medford, Oreg., 68th Cong., 1st Sess., 1924, S. Rept. 525, p. 1.

8. Ibid.

9. S. 1987, Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, I, 129.

10. S. Rept. 525, p. 2.

11. U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Public Lands, Accepting Certain Tracts of Land in Medford, Oreg., 68th Cong., 1st Sess., 1924, H. Rept. 983, pp. 1-2.

12. Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, I, 11.

13. Master Plan of Crater Lake National Park, July 1964, Chapter 1, Basic Information, The Land, p. 11. Copy of master plan on file in National Park Service History Collection, Harpers Ferry Center, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.

14. H.R. 9970, Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, I, 138-39 .

15. U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Public Lands, Add Certain Land to Crater Lake National Park, Oreg., 72d Cong., 1st Sess., 1932, H. Rept. 886, pp. 1-3.

16. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Public Lands and Surveys, Add Certain Land to Crater Lake National Park, Oreg., 72d Cong., 1st Sess., 1932, S. Rept. 597, pp. 1-3.

17. Solinsky to Probert, July 14, 1932, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File–South Entrance Station, FRC, Seattle.

18. Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, September 28, 1944, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File 602, Boundaries, FRC, Seattle.

19. U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Public Lands, Acquisition of Land in Medford, Oreg., for Crater Lake National Park, 72d Cong., 1st Sess., 1932, H. Rept. 925, p. 2.

20. H.R. 10284, Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, I, 142-43 .

21. H. Rept. 925, pp. 1-2.

22. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Public Lands and Surveys, Acquisition of Additional Land in Medford, Oreg., For Use in Connection with Administration of Crater Lake National Park, 72d Cong., 1st Sess., 1932, 5. Rept. 598, pp. 1-2.

23. Master Plan for Crater Lake National Park, July 1964, Chapter 1, Basic Information, the Land, p. 11, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

24. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, To Amend An Act Entitled “An Act to Accept the Cession by the State of Oregon of Exclusive Jurisdiction Over the Lands Embraced Within the Crater Lake National Park, and for Other Purposes,” 74th Cong., 1st Sess., 1935, S. Rept. 484, p. 1.

25. 5. 2185, Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, 156-57 .

26. S. Rept. 484, p. 1.

27. U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Public Lands, Amend An Act Entitled “An Act to Accept the Cession by the State of Oregon of Exclusive Jurisdiction Over the Lands Embraced Within the Crater Lake National Park, and For Other Purposes,” 74th Cong., 1st Sess., 1935, H. Rept. 859, p. 1.

28. 5. 2371, Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, II, 290-98.

29. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Regulation of Mining Activities Within Areas of the National Park System, 94th Cong., 1st Sess., 1975, S. Rept. 94-567, pp. 7, 15, 18.

30. U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Providing for the Regulation of Mining Activity Within, and Repealing the Application of Mining Laws to, Areas of the National Park System, and for other purposes, 94th Cong., 2d Sess., 1976, H. Rept. 94-1428, pp. 1-21.

31. Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, II, 279-80.

32. Congressional Record, Senate, February 20, 1980, S 1586.

33. For more information on the dialogue between the National Park Service and the U.S. Forest Service regarding RARE II wilderness designations during 1979 and early 1980 see Hatfield to Whalen, October 18, December 13, 1979; Hutchison to Hatfield, December 31, 1979; and Tobin to Hatfield, January 18, 1980; in Crater Lake National Park Enlargement, A Legislative History, December 19, 1980, Park Administrative Files, Attic, Canfield Building, Crater Lake National Park.

34. 5. 2318, Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, II, 382-83 .

35. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Revising the Boundary of Crater Lake National Park, 96th Cong., 2d Sess., 1980, S. Rept. 96-959, pp. 1-5.

36. Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, II, 282.

37. Congressional Record, Senate, May 6, 1981, S 4439.

38. S. 1119, Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, II, 410-11 .

39. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Crater Lake National Park Boundary Adjustment, 97th Cong., 1st Sess., 1981, S. Rept. 97-205, pp. 1-4.

40. U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Correcting the Boundary of Crater Lake National Park in the State of Oregon, And For Other Purposes, 97th Cong., 1st Sess., 1981, H. Rept. 97-383, pp. 1-8.

41. Legislative History for Crater Lake National Park, II, 283.

42. Crater Lake National Park, Crater Lake Limnological Program, 1984 Annual Report, by Gary L. Larson in collaboration with Jan Jarvis and Jerry McCrea, July 1985, p. 1, andCrater Lake Limnological Studies, 1985 Annual Report, by Gary L. Larson, Cooperative Park Studies Unit, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, in collaboration with Jon Jarvis, Jerry McCrea, and John Salinas, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Crater Lake, Oregon, p. 1, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

43. Crater Lake Limnological Program, 1984 Annual Report, pp. 1-2.

44. Crater Lake National Park, Research Boat Plan, July 8, 1985, Resource Management Files, Crater Lake National Park.

45. Crater Lake National Park, Position Statement and Operational Plan For Winter and Spring Research On Crater Lake, 1986, Central Files, Crater Lake National Park.

46. Resource Management/Research Integration in the Crater Lake Limnology Program, by Jonathan B. Jarvis, 1986, Central Files, Crater Lake National Park.

47. “Geothermal Testing Set For Crater Lake Area,” National Parks, LIX (March/April, 1985), 39, and Portland Oregonian, October 6, 1984, Vertical Files, Klamath County Library, Klamath Falls, Oregon.

48. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Wilderness Recommendation, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, February 1974, pp. 2-3.

49. Among the preliminary studies leading up to the proposal were the following: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Description of Wilderness Proposal for Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, February 1969; Wilderness Study, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, May 1970; and Wilderness Study, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, September 1970.

50. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Wilderness Proposal, Crater Lake National Park, October 1970, pp. 4-8.

51. For more data on the position taken by the Sierra Club, see Sierra Club, Northwest Office, Records, 1973-1979, Boxes 6 and 7, Manuscripts Collection, Henry Suzallo Library, University of Washington, Seattle. Also see Wilderness Suitability Study–Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, Klamath Falls and Medford, Oregon, January 21, and 23, 1971, Official Transcript of Proceedings, in Oregon Collection, Main Library, University of Oregon, Eugene.

52. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Wilderness Recommendation, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, February 1974, pp. 1-24. Also see U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Final Environmental Statement, Proposed Wilderness, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, FES 74-33, June 13, 1974, pp. 1-109.

53. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, General Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, December 1977, p. 1-7

54. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Statement for Management, Crater Lake National Park, August 1986, pp. SFM-16-17.

55. Memorandum for the Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park, by G.A. Moskey, Chief Counsel, August 23, 1941, and Memorandum for the Director, by E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, September 3, 1941, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 610, Part 1, Crater Lake, Lands, Buildings, Roads & Trails, Private Holdings, Yawkey Lumber Tract.

56. Yawkey to Mather, August 15, 1924, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 610-1, Yawkey Tract, FRC, Seattle.

57. Quoted in Kimball to Solinsky, February 5, 1932, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 610-1, Yawkey Tract, FRC, Seattle.

58. Ibid.

59. Leavitt to Kimball, March 16, 1938, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 610-1, Yawkey Tract, FRC, Seattle.

60. Memorandum for the Director, E.P. Leavitt, October 19, 1938, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 610-1, Yawkey Tract, FRC, Seattle.

61. Memorandum for B. F. Manbey, Assistant Regional Director, October 24, 1938, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 610-1, Yawkey Tract, FRC, Seattle.

62. Memorandum for Superintendent Leavitt, G.A. Moskey, Chief Counsel, November 5, 1938, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 610-1, Yawkey Tract, FRC, Seattle.

63. Radiogram, October 28, 1939, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 610-1, Yawkey Tract, FRC, Seattle.

64. Memorandum for Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park, Donald E. Lee, Acting Chief Counsel, November 1, 1939; Kimball to Leavitt, November 13, 1939, May 1, 1940; “Valuation Report on Yawkey Timber Company Tract in Crater Lake National Park,” Maurice E. Thede, Associate Forester, and Jack B. Dodd, Associate Forester, November 12, 1939; Option to Sell Real Estate to the United States Government, November 18, 1939; and Memorandum for the Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park, G.A. Moskey, Chief Counsel, September 28, 1940; RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 610-1, Yawkey Tract, FRC, Seattle.

65. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1942, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

66. Memorandum for Superintendent Leavitt, Crater Lake National Park, B.F. Manbey, Assistant Regional Director, July 27, 1942, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-1965, Box 13, Folder 610, Yawkey Tract, FRC, San Bruno.

67. Leavitt to Gladstone Lumber Company, March 16, 1938, RG 79, 67A610, Box 5, File No. 610-02, Gladstone Tract, FRC, Seattle.

68. Leavitt to Gladstone Land and Timber Company, October 20, 1938, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 610-02, Gladstone Tract, FRC, Seattle.

69. Favell-Utley Realty Co. to E.P. Leavitt, January 22, 1940; Memorandum for the Secretary, by A.E. Demaray, Acting Director, May 27, 1941; and Memorandum for the Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park, by G.A. Moskey, Chief Counsel, February 13, 1942; RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 610-02, Gladstone Tract, FRC, Seattle.

70. Leavitt to Dickson, February 4, 1942, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 610, Part 1, Crater Lake, Lands, Buildings, Roads & Trails, Private Holdings, Gladstone Timber Company.

71. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1917, pp. 54-55.

72. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1918, pp. 62-63.

73. Ibid., p. 161.

74. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1919, pp. 85, 219; Ibid.,1920, pp. 137, 281; and Ibid., 1921, pp. 82-83, 226-37. Also see “Memorandum on the Proposed Diamond Lake Extension of Crater Lake National Park, March 6, 1922, RG 79, A616, Box 5, File No. 610, Boundary Adjustments, FRC, Seattle.

75. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1922, p. 53; Ibid., 1924, p. 12; and Ibid., 1925, p. 52.

76. “Memorandum For the Members of the Coordinating Committee on National Parks and Forests,” [1926], RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, Folder No. 16, Boundary Adjustments, FRC, Seattle.

77. Steel to Diamond Lake Commission, August 3, 1926, Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, No. 40, Vol. 8, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

78. Memorandum for the Director, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, September 3, 1939, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-1965, Crater Lake, Box 12, Folder No. 601, Extension to Crater Lake, FRC, San Bruno.

79. Demaray to Keyser, March 12, 1936, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, Diamond Lake Extensions, FRC, Seattle.

80. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1936, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

81. Memorandum for the Director, E.P. Leavitt, September 3, 1939, and “Preliminary Report on Extensions to Crater Lake National Park,” September 2, 1939 (and supporting documentation), RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-1965, Crater Lake, Box 12, Folder No. 601, Extension to Crater Lake, FRC, San Bruno.

82. Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, September 28, 1944, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 602, Boundaries, FRC, Seattle

83. Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, April 27, 1945, and November 7, 1947, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 602, Boundaries, FRC, Seattle.


CHAPTER 10

1. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Centennial Edition, National Park Service Officials, March 1, 1972, p. 51

2. Momyer to Thomson, November 25, 1924, CRLA-History – Miscellaneous, Division of Interpretation Files, Crater Lake National Park.

3. National Park Service Officials, March 1, 1972, pp. 51, 87; Gold Hill News, October 11, 1928, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park; and Oral History Tape Transcription 128C, Interview of Frances Sparrow Firth, February 4, 1980, by Ruth Preston and Marjorie Edens, pp. 3-4, Research Library, Southern Oregon Historical Society, Jacksonville.

4. Stockton Record, December 29, 1923, Scrapbook, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

5. Department of the Interior, Memorandum for the Press, February 7, 1929, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 201-006, Part 1, Crater Lake, Administration, Superintendent, 1917-29.

6. Memorandum for the Secretary, Horace M. Albright, February 4, 1929, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 201-006, Part 1, Crater Lake, Administration, Superintendent, 1917-29.

7. Albright to Solinsky, February 7, 1929, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 201-006, Part 1, Crater Lake, Administration, Superintendent, 1917-29.

8. National Park Service Officials, March 1, 1972, pp. 51, 97, and U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Press Release, July 21, 1937, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 201-15, Policy, Crater Lake, Publicity, Newspaper Articles, Press Notices

9. National Park Service Officials, March 1, 1972, pp. 51, 72, 80, 84, 117; Capitol’s Who’s Who For Oregon, 1972, p. 257; and Oral History Tape Transcription 150, Interview of Katherine “Kit” Nealon Huntress Leavitt, April 15, 1980, by Ruth Preston and Marjorie Edens, pp. 3-16, 2021, 27-28.

10. National Park Service Officials, March 1, 1972, pp. 52, 72, 117.

11. Ibid., pp. 13, 52, 72, 80.

12. Ibid., p. 52

13. Ibid., p. 52, and RG 79, 69A763, Box 13, File A2621, Annual Reports, FRC, Seattle

14. National Park Service Officials, March 1, 1972, pp. 52, 84, and U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Press Release, “Superintendent Named for Crater Lake National Park, Oregon,” March 22, 1961, RG 79, 68A45, Box 11, File K3415, Press Releases, FRC, Seattle.

15. National Park Service Officials, March 1, 1972, p. 52.

16. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Historical Listing of National Park Service Officials, May 1, 1986, pp. 16, 21, 71.

17. Ibid., pp. 28, 59, 71, 74, 77, 108, 130. Paul A. Larson served as acting superintendent from June 23, 1969, to July 11, 1970.

18. Ibid., p. 71.

19. Ibid., pp. 71, 108, 124.

20. Ibid., pp. 71, 75.

21. Ibid., p. 71. Elaine Hounsel served as acting superintendent from February 13 to April 15, 1984.

22. Ibid., pp. 58, 69, 71.

23. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Regulations Governing Crater Lake National Park [In Effect May 1, 1917] (Washington, 1917), pp. 1-7. See Appendix A for a copy of these regulations.

24. Lane to Mather, May 13, 1918, RG 48, Central Classified Files, 1907-36, File No. 12-0, Administration, Part 1. The latter was printed in its entirety in the Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1918, pp. 273-76. See Appendix B for a copy of the letter. Also see Stephen T. Mather, “The National Park Status of Crater Lake,” inOregon: Out of Doors (Portland, 1922), pp. 10-18, Oregon Collection, University of Oregon, Eugene.

25. Solinsky to the Director, Office of National Parks, Buildings and Reservations, February 28, 1934, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 208, Part 1, Crater Lake, Rules and Regulations, General. Also see U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rules and Regulations, Crater Lake National Park, 1921 (Washington, 1921).

26. Ibid., and Memorandum for the Assistant Secretary, January 15, 1932, RG 48, Central Files, 1907-36, File No. 12-3, Part 2, National Parks, Crater Lake, Rules and Regulations, 1931-36. Further data on the regulations for Crater Lake National Park may be found in RG 48, Central Files, 1907-36, File No. 12-3, Part 1, Parks, Reservations and Antiquities, Crater Lake, Rules and Regulations, 1918-30, and Part 2, National Parks, Crater Lake, Rules and Regulations, 1931-36; RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 208, Part 1, Crater Lake, Rules and Regulations, General; and RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 208, Part 1, Crater Lake, Rules and Regulations, General, and Rules and Regulations, Approved.

27. In the District Court of the United States for the District of Oregon, In the Matter of the Appointment of William G. Steel, November 21, 1916, Commissioner for the Crater Lake National Park, Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, No. 38, Vol. 6, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

28. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1921, p. 225.

29. Marsh to Steel, February 16, March 3, 1921; Marsh to Attorney General, February 16, 1921; and In the District Court of the United States for the District of Oregon, In the Matter of the Appointment of William G. Steel, Commissioner for the Crater Lake National Park, March 7, 1921, Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, No. 39, Vol. 7, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

30.

31. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1929, p. 67; Ibid., p. 88; and Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1932, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.2, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Directors Annual Report.

32. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Press Release, August 4, 1939, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 201-15, Policy, Crater Lake, Publicity, Newspaper Articles, Press Notices. During 1939 a strong effort was made to have Chief Ranger Crouch appointed as a Deputy U.S. Marshall for the park for the prompt hearing of misdemeanor cases that were brought before the U.S. Commissioner living in the park. Information relating to the outcome of this effort could not be found. RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 201-10.1, Part 1, Crater Lake, Administration and Personnel, Deputy Marshall.

33. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1947, 1949, Files, Superintendents Office, Crater Lake National Park, and Fee to Franke, October 22, 1948, and Memorandum, The Solicitor to The Secretary, November 30, 1948, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 201-10, Part 1, U.S. Commissioners.

34. Oscar L. Chapman, Secretary of the Interior to William Denman, Chief Judge, United States Court of Appeals, February 8, 1949, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 201-10, Part 1, U.S. Commissioners.

35. Memorandum for the Director, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, April 20, 1949, RG 79, 67A616, Box 3, File No. 201, U.S. Commissioners, FRC, Seattle.

36. Red Cone District Operations Handbook, by Larry L. Hakel, February 17, 1967, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

37. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1917, p. 166.

38. Sparrow to Albright, May 17, 1918, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-29, File No. 621-058, Crater Lake Buildings, Administration.

39. Albright to Sparrow, May 24, 1918, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 621-058, Crater Lake Buildings, Administration.

40. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1918, p. 160. In 1918 the park received $1,200 for the purchase and operation of a “motor-driven passenger-carrying vehicle” for the use of the superintendent and park employees. Ibid., p. 230.

41. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1923, p. 142.

42. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1927, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 207-001, Part 2, Crater Lake, Reports, Annual.

43. Crater Lake National Park, Oregon [1928], RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 302, Part 5, Crater Lake, Appropriations, Estimates.

44. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1929, pp. 64-67, andIbid., 1930, pp. 83-88.

45. Medford Mail Tribune, June 17, 1931, Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, No. 41, Vol. 9, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park, and Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, January 16, 1948, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 855, Crater Lake Medical Service.

46. Crater Lake National Park, Construction Activities – 1932, Program of Expenditures – 1933, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 204.

47. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1934, 1935, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report, and National Park Service Officials, March 1, 1972, p. 51.

48. Solinsky to Director, Office of National Parks, Buildings and Reservations, October 13, 1933, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 201-014, Part 1, Crater Lake, Administration and Personnel, Reorganization.

49. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1934, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

50. Oregon Daily Journal, April 22, May 2, 1935, and Medford Mail Tribune, May 5, 1935, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 204-020, Part One, Crater Lake, Inspections and Investigations By Headquarters Central Reports Officers, E.C. Solinsky – A.R. Edwin – I.F. Davidson, July 19 – August 31, 1935. Also see Portland Oregonian, May 1, 5, 1935, Files, Oregon State Library, Salem, and various newspaper articles in RG 79, File No. 201-6.2, Solinsky Clippings, FRC, Seattle.

51. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1935, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Reports.

52. Ibid.

53. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1936, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Reports.

54. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1937, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Reports.

55. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1936, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Reports.

56. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1937, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Reports.

57. Ibid.

58. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1938, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Reports.

59. Ibid.

60. Annual Reports, Crater Lake National Park, 1939, 1940, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Reports.

61. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1939, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Reports.

62. Oscar L. Chapman, Assistant Secretary of the Interior, to Fourth Assistant Postmaster General, March 10, 1938, RG 48, Central Files, 1937-53, File No. 12-3, Part 2, National Park Service, National Parks, Crater Lake, Quarters, 1938-39.

63. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1940, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Reports.

64. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1942, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

65. Leavitt to Meredith, September 8, 1942; Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, September 9, 1942; Memorandum for the Director, O.A. Tomlinson, Regional Director, September 12, 1942; and Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, Newton B. Drury, Director, September 22, 1942; RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 857-07, Part 1, Crater Lake, Travel, Opening of Parks.

66. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1943, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Superintendents Annual Reports. More information on the involvement of Crater Lake National Park in the war effort may be found in “Address Given by Superintendent E.P. Leavitt Before the Medford Kiwanis Club During January, 1942,” RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 201-006, Part 2, Crater Lake, Administration, Superintendent.

67. Smith to Cressman, May 4, 1944, RG 79, NPS, Western Region (Reg. IV), Central Classified Files, 1923-1965, Crater Lake, Box 1, Folder 101, Crater Lake Historical. Also see Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, July 10, 1944, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, National Parks, Crater Lake, File No. 207-001.

68. For an analysis of the discussion in 1944 see Memorandum for the Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park, Thomas C. Parker, Assistant Superintendent, February 29, 1944; Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, September 13, 1944; and Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, October 6, 1944; RG 79, Western Region, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-1965, Crater Lake, Box 1, Folder 201, Crater Lake National Park, Administration 1-1-44 to 1-1-46, Part III, FRC, San Bruno.

69. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1946, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Superintendents Annual Report. Also see Memorandum, Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park to Regional Director, Region Four, October 27, 1949, RG 79, 67 A610, Box 5, South Entrance Addition, FRC, Seattle, and Beckman to Leavitt, April 11, 1946; Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, April 22, 1946; and Memorandum for the Superintendent, Crater Lake, O.A. Tomlinson, Regional Director, May 6, 1946; RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, Crater Lake National Park, File No. 600-03, Development Outline.

70. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1947, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

71. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1949, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

72. Crater Lake National Park, Crater Lake, Oregon, Application for Funds for School, March 9, 1953, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-1965, Crater Lake, Box 21, Folder 843-03, School Facilities.

73. Organization and Functions As of June 1, 1955, Crater Lake National Park and Oregon Caves National Monument, RG 79, 67A863, Box 9, File A6423, Management Survey, FRC, Seattle. A copy of the organization chart may be seen by clicking on the link.

74. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1957, in Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1957, p. 346.

75. In 1957 the park employees began printing a monthly park newsletter entitled “Phantom Ship’s Log.” This publication, which has been continued to the present, provides interesting glimpses of life and social activities in the park. Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

76. Organization and Functions As of October 1, 1962, RG 79, 46953, Box 13, File A6435, Field Office Organization, FRC, Seattle.

77. Master Plan of Crater Lake National Park, September 1964, Chapter 2, Area Objectives, pp. 1-10, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

78. Memorandum, Superintendent, Crater Lake to Regional Director, Region Four, July 27, 1961, RG 79, 46953, Box 13, File A6435, Field Office Organization, FRC, Seattle. In September Yeager submitted a cost analysis report to support his conclusions. Memorandum, Superintendent to Regional Director, Region Four, September 8, 1961,Ibid.

79. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1965, RG 79, 46953, Box 13, File A2621, Annual Reports (Misc.), FRC, Seattle.

80. Master Plan of Crater Lake National Park, February 1965, Chapter 3, Management Programs, Section 3, Staff Activities, pp. 17-18, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

81. Master Plan of Crater Lake National Park, February 1965, Chapter 3, Management Programs, Section 3, Staff Activities, pp. 3-7, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

82. National Park Service Officials, March 1, 1972, p. 52. After Borgman retired in 1980 the Klamath Falls Group Office was abolished and the staff assigned to Crater Lake with administrative responsibilities for Oregon Caves National Monument.

83. Crater Lake National Park, Management Objectives, Approved June 10, 1970, United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Facts and Figures, [1974], “Nostalgia” Notebook, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

84. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1974, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park, and Interpreter’s Handbook #14, CRLA NP [1977], Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

85. “Chronology of Events Leading to Closing of Crater Lake National Park,” [July 1975], and Memorandum, Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region to Director, National Park Service, October 29, 1975, RG 79, 850006, Box 2, Files, Chronology on Closing of Park and Correspondence on Water Problem, respectively, FRC, Seattle.

86. See, for instance, New York Times, August 2, 1975, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, August 4, 1975, and Portland Oregonian, December 9, 1975, Friends of the Earth, Northwest Office, Oregon Files, Crater Lake, Box 1, Manuscripts Collection, Henry Suzallo Library, University of Washington, Seattle.

87. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Crater Lake National Park: Hearing Before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session, On Oversight to Clarify Circumstances Which Led to Closure of Crater Lake National Park, Medford, Oreg., September 6, 1975 (Washington, 1975), Law Library, Library of Congress.

88. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Closure of Crater Lake National Park: Report of Senator Mark O. Hatfield (Washington, 1976), pp. 1-9. Despite Hatfield’s findings of no coverup, the Oregon Court of Appeals in September 1980 upheld a $15,000 punitive damage award for a woman who had suffered gastrointestinal illness from drinking water while a guest at the lodge during the summer of 1975. The decision was based on evidence that Peyton had “covered up” indications of possible contaminated water trying to keep the information from patrons. All told, the Park Service paid more than $275,000 in damages. Oregon Journal, September 22, 1980, Files, Oregon State Library, Salem.

89. Statement for Management, Crater Lake National Park, November 8, 1977, in U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, General Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, December 1977, 1-5 and 1-14

90. See, for instance, “Statement for Management, Crater Lake National Park,” March 1979, Resource Management Files, Crater Lake National Park.

91. “Statement for Management, Crater Lake National Park,” March 11, 1983, Resource Management Files, Crater Lake National Park. In April 1983 an employees union contract was negotiated, providing for representation of nonsupervisory employees by the American Federation of Government Employees, Local #1042.

92. Statement for Management, Crater Lake National Park, August 1986, Central Files, Crater Lake National Park.

93. “Statement for Management, Crater Lake National Park,” March 11, 1983, Resource Management Files, Crater Lake National Park. Also see Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park to Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, March 18, 1980, Central Files, Crater Lake National Park, and Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park to Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, October 23, 1984, Resource Management Files, Crater Lake National Park. In 1979 a subcontract was granted to Crater Lake Ski Service for ski equipment and snowshoes rental and ski and snowshoe instruction from Thanksgiving through April.

94. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1982, Central Files, Crater Lake National Park.

95. Crater Lake National Park, Organizational Chart, November 21, 1986, Central Files, Crater Lake National Park. A copy of the chart may be seen in Appendix F.


CHAPTER 11

1. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1917, p. 166.

2. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1918, p. 160; Ibid., 1919, p. 218.

3. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1920, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 207-001, Part 2, Crater Lake, Reports, Annual.

4. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1924, p. 118.

5. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1926, pp. 115-16. A new fire lookout station was completed on Mount Scott in 1926. The U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Indian Affairs agreed to pay jointly the wages of the lookout with the Park Service providing the structure, equipment, and supplies.

6. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1928, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

7. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1929, pp. 64, 66.

8. Report on Forest Protection Requirements of Crater Lake National Park, 1930, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 883-02, Part 1, Crater Lake, Forest Protection (General), Protection Improvements (Office Order No. 198).

9. Medford Mail Tribune, May 5, 1931, and Portland Oregonian, May 18, 1931, Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, No. 41, Vol. 9, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

10. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1933, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.2, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Director’s Annual Report.

11. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1935, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

12. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1936, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

13. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1937, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

14. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1939, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

15. “Ranger Training School, Crater Lake National Park, 1938,” RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 840, Education Activities & Methods (General). Also see “Second Annual Field Ranger School, Crater Lake National Park, 1939,” RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-1965, Crater Lake, Box 21, Folder 883, Part I, November 25, 1936, and Crater Lake National Park, Annual Training School For Rangers, Ranger-Naturalists, and Fire Control Aids, June 22-July 1, 1950, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

16. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, “Crater Lake Ranger Manual, 1938,” pp. 1-51, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

17. “Ranger Protection Requirements, Crater Lake National Park, 1940,” RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, Crater Lake National Park, File No. 207-005, Ranger.

18. Memorandum for Superintendent Leavitt, Crater Lake National Park, by Arno B. Cammerer, Director, January 29, 1940, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, Crater Lake National Park, File No. 207-005, Rangers.

19. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1940, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

20. “Supplement to Report on Ranger Protection Requirements,” February 3, 1941, J. Carlisle Crouch, Chief Ranger, Resource Management Files, Crater Lake National Park.

21. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1942, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

22. Fifth Annual Field Ranger School Combined With Civilian Defense Training, Crater Lake National Park, 1942, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 840, Part 1, Crater Lake, Educational Activities and Methods (General).

23. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1943, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Superintendent’s Annual Report.

24. Crater Lake National Park, Development Outline, Forest Protection: Forest Fire Control, February 1944, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, Crater Lake, Box 11, Folder 600.01, Part I, Master Plans, FRC, San Bruno.

25. Monthly Narrative Reports, Crater Lake National Park, 1946, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-02.3, Crater Lake, Superintendent’s Monthly Narrative Reports, 1943-46.

26. Organization and Functions As of June 1, 1955, Crater Lake National Park and Oregon Caves National Monument, RG 79, 67 A863, Box 9, File A6423, Management Survey, FRC, Seattle

27. Organization and Functions As of October 1, 1962, RG 79, 46953, Box 13, File A6435, Field Office Organization, FRC, Seattle

28. Position Description, Supervisory Park Ranger, March 20, 1963, in “Red Cone District Operations Handbook,” by Larry L. Hakel, February 17, 1967, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

29. Memorandum, Superintendent, Crater Lake to Regional Director, Western Region, December 23, 1964, RG 79, 46953, Box 13, File A6435, Field Office Organization, FRC, Seattle. For the experiences of a fire lookout at Mount Scott during the years 1963-64 see Linda and Roy Neuberger, “Life As A Fire Lookout in Crater Lake National Park,”National Parks Magazine, XXXIX (August, 1965), 16-19.

30. United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Facts and Figures, [1974], “Nostalgia” Notebook, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

31. Function Statement, Resource Management and Visitor Protection Division, September 29, 1986, Central Files, Crater Lake National Park.


CHAPTER 12

1. Regulations Governing Crater Lake National Park [In Effect May 1, 1917], pp. 1-2.

2. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Services, 1917, pp. 57, 186.

3. Albright to Rosenberg, May 11, 1917, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 901-1, Part 1, Crater Lake, Public Utility Operators & Privileges, Grazing.

4. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1918, p. 24.

5. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1921, p. 225.

6. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1923, p. 144.

7. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1918, pp. 159, 161.

8. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1919, pp. 217-18.

9. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1920, pp. 279, 281.

10. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1922, pp. 129-30.

11. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1923, p. 66.

12. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1924, pp. 50-51, 120, and Ibid., 1925, pp. 6, 105.

13. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1929, pp. 66-67.

14. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1922, pp. 129-30; Ibid.,1923, p. 144; Ibid., 1924, p. 120; Ibid., 1925, p. 105; Ibid., 1926, p. 14; and Ibid.,1929, p. 66.

15. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1923, p. 144.

16. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1924, p. 50.

17. Final Report on the Crater Lake Park Control Project, November, 1927, by J.E. Patterson, Assistant Entomologist, U.S. Bureau of Entomology, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 883-06, Part 1, Crater Lake, Forest Protection, Insect Infestation, 1915-29.

18. “Report of the Mountain Pine Beetle Infestation in the Lodgepole Stands of Crater Lake National Park, Season of 1929,” by F.P. Keen, Entomologist, U.S. Bureau of Entomology; “Entomological Report of the Insect Control Project, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, Season Spring 1929,” by J.E. Patterson, U.S. Bureau of Entomology, November 4, 1929; and “Summary of Work Done on Insect Control Projects in Crater Lake National Park, Season of 1929,” November 4, 1929; RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 883-06, Part 1, Crater Lake, Forest Protection, Insect Infestation.

19. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1930, p. 87.

20. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1932, p. 100.

21. Crater Lake National Park, Annual Wildlife Report, 1940, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 720, Part 1, Crater Lake, Protection & Care, General. The diaries of various park rangers at Crater Lake are on microfilm in the Technical Information Center of the Denver Service Center. These diaries consist primarily of wildlife and bird observations in the park from 1930 to 1945. The diaries provide invaluable data on the characteristics of wildlife patterns and habitat during that 16-year period.

22. Cammerer to Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park, March 24, 1938, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 715-02, Part 1, Crater Lake, Bears, General.

23. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1930, p. 87.

24. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1932, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.2, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Director’s Annual Report.

25. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1936, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

26. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1937, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

27. “Report of Mountain Pine Beetle Situation in Crater Lake National Park and Surrounding National Forest Areas, Season 1931 and Recommendations for Control, Spring 1932,” by F.P. Keen, Entomologist, U.S. Bureau of Entomology, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 883-06, Part 2, Crater Lake, Forest Protection, Insect Infestation.

28. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1932, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, p. 12, File No. 207-001.2, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Director’s Annual Report.

29. “Report of the Mountain Pine Beetle Situation in Crater Lake National Park and Adjacent Lands of the Rogue River National Forest, Season 1933–Maintenance Control Program for Spring 1934,” by F.P. Keen, Entomologist, U.S. Bureau of Entomology, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 883-06, Part 2, Crater Lake, Forest Protection, Insect Infestation.

30. Crater Lake National Park, Development Outline, Forest Protection: Tree Disease Control [1941], RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, Crater Lake, Box 11, Folder 600.01, Part I, Master Plans, FRC, San Bruno.

31. “Report on the Vegetation Type Survey of Crater Lake National Park” [1936], and “Vegetation Type Survey of Crater Lake National Park” [1936], RG 79, Region IV, San Francisco, California, Vegetation Surveys, 1935-53, Box 2, Crater Lake (Vegetation Type Survey), FRC, San Bruno.

32. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1930, pp. 29, 87. Portions of the Coffman report may be found in the Resource Management Files at Crater Lake National Park.

33. “Report on Forest Protection Requirements for Crater Lake National Park, Revised 1942,” prepared by Jack B. Dodd, Associate Forester, Region Four, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 883-02, Protection Improvements.

34. Crater Lake National Park, Wildlife Conservation, November, 1944, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, Crater Lake, Box 11, Folder 600.01, Part I, Master Plans, FRC, San Bruno.

35. Memorandum for the Director, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, September 15, 1942, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 715-02, Part 1, Crater Lake, Bears, General.

36. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1943, in Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1943, p. 209.

37. “New Garbage Disposal Site and Bear Situation at Crater Lake National Park,” August 1, 1945, by Joseph S. Dixon, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File 715-02, Part 1, Crater Lake, Bears, General.

38. Crater Lake National Park, Wildlife Conservation, November, 1944, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, Crater Lake, Box 11, Folder 600.01, Part I, Master Plans, FRC, San Bruno.

39. Crater Lake National Park, Development Outline, Forest Protection: Forest Fire Control, February 1944, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, Crater Lake, Box 11, Folder 600.01, Part I, Master Plans, FRC, San Bruno.

40. Crater Lake National Park, Soil and Moisture Conservation, November 1944, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, Crater Lake, Box 11, Folder 600.01, Part I, Master Plans, FRC, San Bruno.

41. “Annual Forestry Report, Crater Lake National Park,” 1946, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-65, Crater Lake, Box 21, Folder No. 883, “Part III, 1/1/42-1/1/51,” FRC, San Bruno.

42. “Entomological Work Plans for the Crater Lake Park Insect Control Project, Season of 1947,” RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-65, Crater Lake, Box 22, Folder No. 883-06, FRC, San Bruno.

43. Leavitt to Kron, August 4, 1948, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, National Parks, Crater Lake, File No. 208-06, Fishing, Hunting & Trapping.

44. Memorandum, Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park to Regional Director, Region Four, February 23, 1951, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-65, Crater Lake, Box 18, Folder No. 715-02, Bears, FRC, San Bruno.

45. “Proposed National Park Service Bear Management Policy,” [1959], RG 79, 79A45, Box 11, File N16, Wildlife Management, FRC, Seattle.

46. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1960, RG 79, Box 13, 46953, File A2621, Annual Reports (Misc.), FRC, Seattle.

47. “Review of the Fishery Situations in Crater Lake National Park,” O.L. Wallis, Aquatic Biologist, May, 1958, RG 79, 68A45, Box 11, File N1423, Fish & Wildlife, FRC, Seattle. Also see Office Memorandum, Fishery Management Biologist, Branch of Fishery Management Services, Portland, Oregon to Regional Director, Portland, Oregon, December 17, 1957, Old Naturalist Files, Crater Lake National Park.

48. Memorandum, Regional Director, Region Four to Director, May 2, 1958, RG 79, 68A45, Box 11, File N1423, Fish & Wildlife, FRC, Seattle.

49. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1960, RG 79, 46953, Box 13, File A2621, Annual Reports (Misc.), FRC, Seattle.

50. Master Plan of Crater Lake National Park, July 1964, Chapter 1, p. 19, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

51. Crater Lake National Park, Management Objectives, Approved June 10, 1970, United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Facts and Figures, [1974], “Nostalgia” Notebook, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

52. “Bear Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park,” November 18, 1974, Resource Management Files, Klamath Falls Group Office Files, Crater Lake National Park.

53. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, “Crater Lake National Park, Bear Management Plan,” 1980, Appendix B, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Resource Management Plan, April 9, 1984.

54. “Fire Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park,” August 4, 1977, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

55. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, “Crater Lake National Park, Hazardous Tree Management Plan,” July 15, 1982, Appendix F, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park Resource Management Plan, April 9, 1984.

56. Crater Lake National Park, “Hydroseed Revegetation Plan,” June 4, 1985, and Crater Lake National Park, “Peregrine Falcon Action Plan,” February 28, 1986, Resource Management Files, Crater Lake National Park. Also see Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1974, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center, and “Crater Lake Boat Operation Plan,” May 15, 1980, Resource Management Files, Crater Lake National Park.

57. Statement for Management, Crater Lake National Park, August 1986, Central Files, Crater Lake National Park.

58. “Resources Management Plan [Draft], Crater Lake National Park,” January 1977, Resource Management Files, Crater Lake National Park.

59. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Resource Management Plan, April 9, 1982, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

60. Crater Lake National Park, Natural and Cultural Resource Management Plan and Environmental Assessment, 1986, Resource Management Files, Crater Lake National Park.


CHAPTER 13

1. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1917, pp. 54-57, 165-67, and National Park Service, Western Regional Office, Division of Cultural Resource Management, National Park Service Rustic Architecture: 1916-1942, by William C. Tweed, Laura E. Soulliere, and Henry G. Law, February 1977, p. 23.

2. Lane to Mather, May 13, 1918, RG 48, Central Classified Files, 1907-36, File No. 12-0, Administration, Part I.

3. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1918, pp. 61-62. The annual report contained a description of the water supply, telephone system, roads, and trails in the park. This data may be seen in Appendix A.

4. Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, 1919, Extract, Crater Lake National Park(Washington, 1919), Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

5. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1919, pp. 82-84, 218.

6. Alex Sparrow, Superintendent to the Director, National Park Service, August 26, 1920, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 207-001, Part 2, Crater Lake, Reports, Annual.

7. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1921, pp. 82, 223.

8. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1923, pp. 65-67, 143.

9. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1924, p. 119, and Joseph H. Farney, “The Lure of Crater Lake,” Union Pacific Magazine, IV (June, 1925), 31-32.

10. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1925, pp. 103-04.

11. Crater Lake National Park, Development Outline, Road and/or Trail System Plan, March 1944, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, Crater Lake, Box 11, Folder 600.01, Part I, Master Plans, FRC, San Bruno.

12. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1926, pp. 40-41, 115-16.

13. Vint to Thomson, July 31, 1926, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 900-02, Part I, Crater Lake, National Park Concessions, Crater Lake National Park Company. Among other comments Thomson recommended that cabins be built at Government Camp to house park employees currently living in tents and that Munson Meadows be developed as a campground. Wherever possible campgrounds “should be of sufficient area to permit rotation and thus prevent complete destruction of vegetation.”

14. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1926, pp. 40-41, 115-16.

15. “General Statement, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon” [1926], RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 302, Part 3, Crater Lake, Appropriations, Estimates, 1924-27.

16. “Report on Naturalization in the Rim Area,” by Merel S. Sager, Assistant Landscape Architect, November 18, 1932, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 207.

17. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1927, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 207-001, Part 2, Crater Lake, Reports, Annual.

18. “Report on Construction Activities in Crater Lake National Park, Season 1928,” by Ward P. Webber, Resident Engineer, January 25, 1929, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 631-2, Part 2, Roads Budget, General, Crater Lake, 1928-30.

19. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1928, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park. See Appendix B for a list of physical improvements in the park as of 1928.

20. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1928, p. 13.

21. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1929, pp. 65-66, and “Final Construction Report on Sewage Disposal System, Park Headquarters, Account No. 481,” by Ward P. Webber, Engineer, August 7, 1931, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39.

22. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1930, pp. 85-86, and “Final Construction Report of No. 406, Employee’s Cottage at Headquarters,” RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 620-058.

23. Crater Lake National Park, “Report on Operations and Approved Construction Projects, Season of 1931 (1932 Fiscal Year),” E.C. Solinsky, Superintendent, n.d., RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 207, Report on Operations and Approved Construction Projects, Season of 1931 (1932 Fiscal Year). Also see Crater Lake National Park, “Report of 1931 Construction Activities, As of November 1, 1931,” by W.E. Robertson, Associate Engineer, File No. 207, Ibid., and Kerr to Solinsky, October 12, 1931, RG 79, 67A618, Box 6, File 661, Electrical System – Crater Lake, FRC, Seattle.

24. National Park Service Rustic Architecture: 1916-1942, pp. 67-68. For more information on these structures see U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Park and Recreation Structures, Part I – Administration and Basic Service Facilities, by Albert H. Good, 1938, pp. 86-87, 158.

25. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1932, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.2, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Directors Annual Report, andAnnual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1932, p. 41. Further data on construction activities in the park during 1932 may be found in “Report to the Chief Landscape Architect Through the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park, A Summary of Construction During the Season of 1932,” by Merel S. Sager, Assistant Landscape Architect, October 29, 1932, and “Report on 1932 Field Activities, Crater Lake National Park,” by William E. Robertson, Associate Engineer, November 1, 1932, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 207.

26. “Report to the Chief Architect Through the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park,” by M.S. Sager, Assistant Landscape Architect, Emergency Conservation Work, Camps Nos. 1 and 2, October 13, 1933, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, Crater Lake, File No. 207 – Sager.

27. “Report to the Chief Architect Through the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park,” by Merel S. Sager, Assistant Landscape Architect, October 16, 1933, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, Crater Lake, File No. 621, Construction Projects.

28. See Appendix C for the reminiscences of an enrollee at Camp Wineglass during 1934.

29. David H. Canfield, Acting Superintendent to the Director, National Park Service, August 8, 1934, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 885-01, Part 2, Crater Lake, Protection, Service to Public and Forestry, Forestation, 1934, and Acting Associate Director to Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park, May 1, 1934, RG 79, 67A614, Box 4, File No. 600, Third Enrollment Period, FRC, Seattle.

30. “Report to the Chief Architect Through Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park, E.C.W. ,” by Francis G. Lange, Landscape Architect, October 22, 1934, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 885-01, Part 1, Crater Lake, Reports.

31. “Report to the Chief Architect Through the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park,” October 20, 1934, by Armin M. Doerner, Associate Landscape Architect, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 618, Part 2, Crater Lake, Lands, Buildings, Roads and Trails, Public Works, 1934-39. For more information on the Administration Building, seePark and Recreation Structures, Part I, pp. 70-71.

32. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1935, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report.

33. “Final Narrative Report to Regional Landscape Architect – Region IV, Through the Superintendent, Emergency Conservation Work 7th Period, Camp NP-i, Co. 1634 (Located at Annie Spring), Crater Lake National Park,” by Francis G. Lange, Resident Landscape Architect, Howard W. Buford, Assistant Landscape Architect, November 1, 1936, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

34. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1936, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report, and David H. Canfield, “Building the Rim Road at Crater Lake,” Earth Mover, XXIII (April, 1936), 7-10.

35. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1937, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake! Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report, and “Final Narrative Report, Civilian Conservation Corps, Minor Roads and Trails, Major Roads, Park Operator to Chief Architect,” by Francis G. Lange, Resident Landscape Architect, Branch of Plans and Design, Region IV, Crater Lake National Park [October, 1937], RG 79, NPS, Western Region, Region IV, Resident Landscape Architect’s Report to Chief Architect, 1927-40, Box 2, Final Narrative Report, 1938 (CCC), FRC, San Bruno.

36. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1938, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report. For more information on the management of the CCC camps at Crater Lake during 1938, see Clarke to Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park [and enclosures], August 29, 1938, RG 79, Western Region, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-1965, Box 2, Folder 204, Crater Lake Inspections.

37. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1939, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report.

38. “Monthly Narrative Report to Chief of Planning,” by Francis G. Lange, Resident Landscape Architect, Branch of Plans and Design, Region IV, Crater Lake National Park, April 25, 1939 to May 25, 1939, May 25, 1939 to June 25, 1939, June 25, 1939 to July 25, 1939, July 25, 1939 to August 25, 1939, and September 25 to October 25, 1939, RG 79, NPS, Western Region (#IV), Resident Landscape Architect’s Report to Chief Architect, 1927-40, Box 2, Crater Lake Monthly Narrative Reports, 1939, FRC, San Bruno.

39. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1940, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report; Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1942, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park; and Memorandum for Senior Foreman (Engineer) Robert W. Auld, Camp Lava Beds NP-32, CCC, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, August 12, 1941, and Memorandum for the Director, Acting Assistant Regional Director, July 21, 1941, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File 64, Surveys, and Memorandum for the Regional Director, Maurice E. Thede, Associate Forester, November 22, 1940, RG 79, 67 A610, Box S, File No. 610-01, Yawkey Tract, FRC, Seattle.

40. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1944, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

41. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1943, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Superintendent’s Annual Report.

42. Ibid., and Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, May 15, 1943, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-65, Crater Lake, Box 12, Folder 601.01, Crater Lake National Park, Administrative Site, Part I, FRC, San Bruno.

43. “Report On Study For Future Headquarters Developments at Crater Lake National Park,” by E.A. Davidson, Regional Chief of Planning, and R.D. Waterhouse, Regional Engineer, January, 1943, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 601, Report on Study for Future Headquarters Development. For comments by NPS personnel on this report, see “Comment Briefs Related to Proposed Headquarters Relocation, Crater Lake National Park, May 26, 1943, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File – South Entrance Addition, FRC, Seattle, and Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, May 15, 1943, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-65, Crater Lake, Box 12, Folder 601.01, Crater Lake National Park, Administrative Site, Part I.

44. “Report on Status for Rim Area Campground Relocation,” by E.A. Davidson, Regional Chief of Planning, and R.D. Waterhouse, Regional Engineer, May 1, 1943, and Memorandum for the Regional Director, R.D. Waterhouse, Associate Engineer, August 6, 1943, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 601.01, Part I, Crater Lake, Lands, Administrative Site.

45. Memorandum for the Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park, O.A. Tomlinson, January 4, 1945, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, Crater Lake, Box 11, Folder 600, Part IV, FRC, San Bruno.

46. Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, Newton B. Drury, Director, January 29, 1946, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 600-03, Crater Lake, Development Outline.

47. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1949, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

48. Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, May 14, 1948, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 620-08, Checking Stations.

49. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1951, 1952, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

50. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1953, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

51. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, News Releases, September 11 and 14, 1956, RG 79, 67A863, Box 9, File A98, Mission 66, FRC, Seattle.

52. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mission 66 for Crater Lake National Park, [1956], RG 79, 67A63, Box 9, File A98, Mission 66, FRC, Seattle

53. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mission 66 for Crater Lake National Park, [1956], RG 79, 67A63, Box 9, File A98, Mission 66, FRC, Seattle. Also see “Mission 66 Prospectus, Crater Lake National Park,” April 20, 1956, RG 79, 67A863, Box 9, File A98, Mission 66, and Superintendent, Crater Lake to Director, October 21, 1958, RG 79, 67A863, Box 9, File D3414, Building Construction and Maintenance, FRC, Seattle

54. Portland Oregonian, September 11, 1956, and Salem Capital Journal, September 11, 1956, and March 26, 1957, Vertical Files, Oregon State Library, Salem.

55. Monthly Narrative Reports, Crater Lake National Park, June, July, August, September 1958, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park, and Annual Reports, Crater Lake National Park, 1959, and 1960, RG 79, 46953, Box 13, File A2621, Annual Reports (Misc.), FRC, Seattle. The flat roof style chosen for some of these buildings would create controversy in later years, because of the damage Incurred by heavy snow depths. For more data on the background to the roofing decisions see Assistant Superintendent Mermin to Superintendent, February 17, 1954, and Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park to Chief, Western Office, Division of Design and Construction, February 11, 1957, RG 79, 67A863, Box 9, File D3414, Building Construction and Maintenance, FRC, Seattle.

56. Annual Reports, Crater Lake National Park, 1961, RG 79, A673, Box 13, File A2621, Annual Reports, FRC, Seattle.

57. Monthly Narrative Reports, Crater Lake National Park, June, July, August, September, 1962, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park, and Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1963, RG 79, 46953, Box 13, File 2621, Annual Reports (Misc.), FRC, Seattle.

58. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1963, 1964, RG 79, 46953, File A2621, Annual Reports (Misc.), FRC, Seattle.

59. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Closure of Crater Lake National Park: Report of Senator Mark O. Hatfield (Washington, 1976), p. 13.

60. Monthly Narrative Reports, Crater Lake National Park, June, July, August, September, 1966, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park, and Memorandum, Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park to Regional Director, August 11, 1966, RG 79, 46953, Box 13, File A2621, Annual Reports (Misc.) FRC, Seattle.

61. “Highlight Briefing Statement, 1967 Calendar Year,” Crater Lake National Park, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

62. Annual Reports, Crater Lake National Park, 1972, 1973, 1974, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

63. Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region to Director, National Park Service, October 29, 1975, RG 79, 85006, Box 2, Correspondence on Water Problem, FRC, Seattle, and Salem Statesman Journal, June 27, 1976, Vertical Files, Oregon State Library, Salem.

64. Curtis Bohlen, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Interior to Brock Evans, Washington Representative, Sierra Club, May 10, 1973, M. Brock Evans Papers, Box 2, 1971-75, Crater Lake National Park Files, Manuscripts Collection, Henry Suzallo Library, University of Washington, Seattle.

65. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, General Management Plan: Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, December 1977, II I-C-2, IV-2, 3, 4.

66. Annual Reports, Crater Lake National Park, 1979-86, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

67. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Environmental Assessment, Development Concept Plan, Amendment to the General Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, February, 1984, pp. 3-5.

68. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Interim Development Concept Plan/ Amendment to the General Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, May, 1985, pp. 1-6.


CHAPTER 14

1. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1922, p. 127; Ibid., 1923, p. 142; and “National Park Service News,” September, 1919, p. 6, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

2. Sparrow to Director, National Park Service, August 26, 1920, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 207-001, Part 2, Crater Lake, Reports, Annual.

3. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1922, pp. 127-28.

4. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1923, pp. 143.

5. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1924, p. 119.

6. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1925, pp. 103-04.

7. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1927, p. 11.

8. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1929, pp. 65-67.

9. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1930, pp. 84-86.

10. Solinsky to Director, National Park Service, May 5, 1931, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 630-002.2, Part 1, Crater Lake, Lands, Buildings, Roads and Trails, Roads (General), Snow Removal.

11. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1932, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.2, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Directors Annual Report.

12. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1934, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report.

13. Survey for the Rehabilitation of Buildings in Crater Lake National Park, by E.E. Etherton, Superintendent of Construction, January 31, 1935, RG 79, 67A616, Box 5, File No. 614-01, Rehabilitation of Buildings – Survey.

14. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1935, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report.

15. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1936, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report.

16. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1937, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report.

17. Leavitt to Franklin, June 16, 1946, RG 79, Central Classified Files, 1907-49, Crater Lake, File No. 0-1, Liaison Office.

18. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1943, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report.

19. Memorandum for the Director, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, July 21, 1953, RG 79, Central Classified Files, 1907-49, File No. 630-02.2.

20. Superintendent’s Monthly Reports, September, October, November, 1946, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-02.3, Crater Lake, Superintendent’s Monthly Narrative Reports, 1943-46.

21. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1948, RG 79, Central Files, File No. 207-001.2, Directors Annual Report, National Parks, Crater Lake. For more information on the condition of the water supply, sewage, garbage disposal, and sanitation systems In the park during the postwar years see “Report of Sanitary Inspections at Crater Lake National Park, Oregon,” by A.L. Dopmeyer, Sanitary Engineer Director, U.S. Public Health Service, September 1947, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 900-05.1, Wages and Hours, Crater Lake.

22. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service to the Secretary of the Interior, 1952, in Reprint from the Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1952, p. 357.

23. Organization and Functions As of June 1, 1955, Crater Lake National Park and Oregon Caves National Monument, RG 79, 67A863, Box 9, File A6423, Management Survey, FRC, Seattle.

24. Organization and Functions As of October 1, 1962, RG 79, 46953, Box 13, File 6435, Field Office Organization, FRC, Seattle.

25. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1974, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center, and Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1979, Central Files, Crater Lake National Park.


CHAPTER 15

1. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, General Information Regarding Crater Lake National Park, Season of 1917 (Washington, 1917), pp. 5-21, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, Privileges, Crater Lake Company to 1919, File No. 12-3 (Part 8), Parks, Reservations and Antiquities, Crater Lake National Park, Privileges, Crater Lake Company, 1915-18. Also see contract awarded to the Crater Lake Company effective January 1, 1917, in RG 79, Central Files, 1907-30, Privileges, Crater Lake Company (Proceedings against Parkhurst), 1922.

2. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1917, pp. 11, 17, 19, 166, 191.

3. Ibid., p. 57.

4. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1918, pp. 159-60.

5. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1919, pp. 84, 217-18.

6. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, General Information Regarding Crater Lake National Park, 1919 (Washington, 1919), and “National Park Service News,” August, 1919, p. 6, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

7. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1920, pp. 136, 279.

8. Ibid., pp. 135-36, 279-81, and Salem Journal, August 13, 1920, Vertical Files, Oregon Historical Society, Portland. A Delco electric plant was in operation at the lodge for the first time in 1920, thus providing electric lighting for guests. One newspaper account described the condition of the lodge as “a rough, barnlike, unfinished building” with “one community lavatory” and “no bath.” The “partitions between the rooms were plaster board which had shrunk, leaving cracks two and three inches wide in some places.”Klamath Falls Herald and News, April 5, 1948, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 900-02, Part 3, National Park Service, Crater Lake Park Company, Contract, 1948.

9. First Assistant Secretary to the Crater Lake Company, September 14, 1920, RG 48, Central Files, 1907-36, File No. 12-3 (Part 1), Parks, Reservations, and Antiquities, Crater Lake, Privileges, Crater Lake Company, 1920-36.

10. Sydney B. Vincent, Chairman, Crater Lake Committee to Hon. B.W. Olcott, Governor of State of Oregon, December 17, 1920, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, Privileges, Crater Lake Company (Proceedings against Parkhurst), 1922.

11. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1920, pp. 80-81, 224, and Albright to Dohrmann, May 17, 1921, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 900-05, Part 1, Crater Lake, Public Utility Operators, Crater Lake National Park Company, Miscellaneous Correspondence, 1921.

12. Medford Mail Tribune, August 29, 1921, quoted in “The Editorial,” Table Rock Sentinel, V (1985), 19.

13. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1921, pp. 224-25.

14. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1921, pp. 82, 225. Records relating to the construction of the studio may be found in RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 900-01, Part 1, Crater Lake, Public Utility Operators, Fred H. Kiser, Buildings.

15. The transactions that led to the removal of Parkhurst as park concessionaire angered Commissioner Steel. In May 1922 he initiated a letter-writing campaign to Oregon newspapers, charging Mather with fraudelent and scandalous practices in forcing Parkhurst out of the park without what he considered to be proper compensation. In September 1922 he wrote to President Warren G. Harding, demanding that Mather and Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall be removed from office. Finally in January 1924 Steel published a pamphlet, entitled “The Crater Lake Scandal,” in which his letters on behalf of Parkhurst were printed. William Gladstone Steel, “The Crater Lake Scandal” (Eugene, 1924), pp. 1-9, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39. The alleged mistreatment of Parkhurst was also discussed in Congressional debate in February 1924 during consideration by the House of Representatives of a Department of the Interior appropriations bill. Salem Journal, February 10, 1924, Vertical Files, Oregon Historical Society, Portland. For further data relating to Steel’s accusation against Mather see Steel to the President, September 26, 1922, Steel to Mather, November 26, 1926, and Mather to Steel, December 6, 1926, Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, No. 40, Vol. 8, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

16. Correspondence, Assignment, and Contract, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 900-02, Part 1, Crater Lake National Park, Concessions, Crater Lake National Park Company; United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park Company, Crater Lake National Park, Contract No. I-1p-80, January 1, 1922, to December 31, 1941, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 900-02, Part 1, Crater Lake National Park, Concessions, Crater Lake National Park Company, 1922-41; and Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1922, pp. 51-52, 129. Further data on these transactions may be found in Albright to Mather, April 19, 1922, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 900-05, Part 2, Crater Lake, Public Utility Operators, Crater Lake National Park Company, Miscellaneous Correspondence, 1921-22.

17. Ira Lantz, Special Agent, D.I. to Director of Investigations, Department of the Interior, August 19, 1935, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 204, Part One, Crater Lake, Inspections and Investigations, Division of Investigation.

18. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1922, pp. 128-29.

19. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1923, pp. 65-67, 143.

20. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1924, pp. 49, 51, 118-20.

21. Josephine H. Forney, “The Lure of Crater Lake,” Union Pacific Magazine, IV (June, 1925), 31-32.

22. Klamath Falls Herald and News, April 5, 1948, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 900-02, Part 3, National Park Service, Crater Lake Park Company, Contract, 1948.

23. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1925, pp. 37, 104.

24. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rules and Regulations Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, 1925, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 208, Part 1, Crater Lake, Rules and Regulations, General. Earlier in 1920-21 less elaborate road signs had been installed along the park entrance roads.

25. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1926, pp. 40, 114, 116;ibid., 1929, p. 29; ibid., 1932, p. 16; ibid., 1933, p. 183; Contract and related correspondence between the Crater Lake National Park Company and the Standard Oil Company, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 900-02, Part 1, Crater Lake National Park, Concessions, Crater Lake National Park Company; ‘Fort Klamath Community Club, First Annual Ski Race, Fort Klamath to Crater Lake Lodge and Return, General Rules and Information,” [1927], Division of Interpretation Files, Crater Lake National Park; and “Ski Activity Isn’t New,” Reflections, III (Fall-Winter, 1978-79), 1, 4. Although the lodge was not open during the winter the Crater Lake National Park Company employed John Maben as its first winter caretaker in 1926-27. His diary for that period may be found in the Oregon Historical Society, Portland.

26. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1928, p. 13, and ibid., pp. 64, 67.

27. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Circular of General Information Regarding Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, 1930, in Circulars of General Information, The National Parks, 1930, Rocky Mountain Regional Office Library, National Park Service.

28. Stockton Record, October 4, 1930, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 857, Part 1, Crater Lake, Travel, General.

29. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1927, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 207-001, Part 2, Crater Lake Reports, General.

30. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1929, p. 64, and Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1930, p. 84.

31. Contract and correspondence, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 900-02, Crater Lake, Concessions, Contracts, Dr. Miller. Miller provided such services in the park until the outbreak of World War II. See Contracts in RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 900-02, Part 1, Crater Lake, Concessions, Contracts, Dr. Miller (M.D.)

32. Larry Smith and Lloyd Smith, comps., The Smith Brothers’ Chronological History: Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, 1832 to 1985 [1985].

33. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1929, p. 67. For more data on the financial difficulties of the Kiser Studio and its competition with the Crater Lake National Park Company see correspondence in RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 900-02, Parts 1 and 2, Crater Lake, Public Utility Operators, Fred H. Kiser, Contracts, 1911-28 and 1929.

34. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1932, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 207-001, Part 2, Crater Lake, Reports, Annual, and Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1932, p. 41.

35. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1934, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report, and Smith and Smith, comps, Smith Brothers’ Chronological History.

36. “Ranger Protection Requirements, Crater Lake National Park,” 1940, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, Crater Lake National Park, File No. 207-005, Rangers, and Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1942, in Reprint of the Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1942, p. 187. Among the prominent visitors to the park during these years were Eleanor Roosevelt, Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, and ECW Director Robert Fechmer in 1935, New York Senator Robert F. Wagner in 1936, former President Herbert C. Hoover in 1937 and 1938, and Ohio Senator Robert A. Taft in 1940.

37. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1935, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No., 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

38. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1936, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No., 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

39. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1937, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No., 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report. For more data on the park visitor facilities and services in 1937 see U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park [Oregon], 1937, in Circulars of General Information, The National Parks, 1937, Library, Rocky Mountain Regional Office, National Park Service.

40. Final Narrative Report, Civilian Conservation Corps, Minor Roads and Trails, Major Roads, Park Operator to Chief Architect by Francis G. Lange, Resident Landscape Architect, Branch of Plans and Design, Region IV, Crater Lake National Park [October, 1937], RG 79, NPS, Western Region, Region IV, Resident Landscape Architect’s Report to Chief Architect, 1927-40, Box 2, Final Narrative Report, 1938 (CCC), FRC, San Bruno.

41. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1938, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No., 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

42. Memorandum for the Director, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, April 26, 1939, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-1965, Crater Lake, Box 21, Folder 868, Winter Use, Part I, FRC, San Bruno. On October 1, 1939, Robert P. Berry of Medford was granted a permit to provide meal, sandwich, snack, and lodging services in the park headquarters messhall and bunkhouse when the concession facilities were not open. Permits and related correspondence, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 900, Part 1, Crater Lake, Concessions, Public Utility Operators, Robert P. Berry.

43. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1939, and Memorandum for the Director, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, July 24, 1939, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report. Also see Transportation Permit, Yellow Cab Company, December 17, 1938, and related correspondence, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 900, Part 1, Crater Lake, Yellow Cab Company, Terminal Cab Company, Concessions.

44. The Klamath Falls News Herald mounted a campaign in 1941 to have the park winter sports program expanded. The articles and Park Service response to resist such pressures may be found in RG 79, Central Files 1933-49, File No. 868, Part 1, Crater Lake, Winter Sports.

45. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1940, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report, and Memorandum for the Director, by Supervisor of Concessions, September 1946, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 900-02, Part 1, National Park Service, White Star and Hurry Cab Taxi Co., 1946. For more information on the park in 1940 see U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, 1940, in Circulars of General Information, The National Parks, 1940, Library, Rocky Mountain Regional Office, National Park Service.

46. Crater Lake National Park Company, Crater Lake National Park, Contract No. 1-1P-80, January 1, 1941 to December 31, 1960, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, Box 22, Folder 900, Crater Lake National Park Company.

47. Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four Headquarters, E.P. Leavitt, December 22, 1941; Crater Lake National Park Company to the Director, October 28, 1941; and Crater Lake National Park Company, Schedule of Basic Rates for the Season of 1942, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-65, Crater Lake, Box 22, Folder 900, Crater Lake National Park Company, Part II, FRC, San Bruno. Also see Memorandum for the Director, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, October 23, 1941, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 660-05, Part 1, Crater Lake, Water Supply and Systems, General.

48. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, Reprinted from the Annual Reports of the Secretary of Interior, 1943, 1944, 1945, and 1946, pp. 220, 230, 228, and 347, respectively, and Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1943, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Superintendent’s Annual Report. Large numbers of tourists were attracted to Crater Lake during the fall of 1945 when several clouds of smoke–or dust-filled gas–billowed from the lake, thus leading to speculation of renewed volcanic activity. “Scenic Volcano,” Time, XLVI (November 12, 1945), 52, and “Crater Lake Volcano Is Not Dangerous,” Science News Letter, XLIX (February 23, 1946), 120.

49. Leavitt to Franklin, June 15, 1946, RG 79, Central Classified Files, 1907-49, Crater Lake, Liaison Office.

50. “Report on Fire Safety, Crater Lake Lodge, Crater Lake National Park, Crater Lake, Oregon,” by Frank L. Ahern, Chief, Safety Office, National Park Service, June 22 to 25, 1948, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, Box 18, Folder 801-Fire, FRC, San Bruno.

51. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1947, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park, and Leavitt t McNeil, December 31, 1946, RG 79, Central Classified Files, 1907-49, File No. 868, Part 1, Crater Lake, Winter Sports.

52. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1947, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park. It is interesting to note that Roman Catholic services were begun in the park during the summer of 1948 and Protestant services the following year.

53. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1949, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park, and see Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, February 18, 1949, RG 79, Central Classified Files, 1933-49, File No. 900-02, Part No. 3, National Park Service, Crater Lake Park Company, Contract.

54. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1949, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park.

55. Klamath Falls Herald and News, April 5, 1948, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 900-02, Part 3, National Park Service, Crater Lake Park Co., Contract, 1948.

56. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1949, Reprinted from the Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1949, pp. 331-32. Although the only documented freezing of the lake occurred in 1949 there were unconfirmed reports of this phenomena in 1925, 1928, and 1930.

57. See, for instance, John Gribble, “Reader’s Choice,” Travel, C (July, 1953), 41, and “Crater Lake Holiday,” Sunset, CXVI (March, 1956), 43-44, and Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1953, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park. For a complete listing of visitor opportunities and services in the park during the early 1950s see George C. Ruhle, Along Crater Lake Highways: A Road Guide to Crater Lake National Park. (Published by Crater Lake Natural History Association, 1953).

58. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Vaction Survey, Rogue River Basin, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon Caves National Monument, [1950], pp. 4-17. As a result of this and other surveys, the Park Service closed the east entrance road in June 1956 because its limited use made road maintenance and operation of an entrance station uneconomical. A section of this road within the park from Rim Drive to Lost Creek Campground and the Pinnacles was to be maintained as a spur road off Rim Drive. National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Information for the Press, “East Entrance Road Closure,” June, 1956, RG 79, 67A863, Box 9, File D-30, Roads and Trails, FRC, Seattle.

59. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1950, Files, Superintendent’s Office, Crater Lake National Park. During 1950-51 three other projects relating to park concessions were completed at Park Service insistence: installation of an automatic electric-powered pump at the Museum Spring pump house to keep the Garfield Peak reservoir filled to capacity; installation of a new sewer line from the lodge laundry to a new sewage disposal filtration tank; and replacement of two existing transformers in the lodge basement with non-flammable oil so as to remove the existing fire hazard.

60. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1951, Files, Superintendents Office, Crater Lake National Park.

61. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1959, Reprinted from the Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1959, p. 356; Area Management Survey Team to Regional Director, Region Four, June 16, 1958, RG 79, 67A863, Box 9, File A6423, Management Survey, FRC, Seattle; Portland Journal, March 29, 1954; andMedford Mail Tribune, August 25, 1957.

62. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1960, RG 79, Box 13, 46973, File A2621, Annual Reports (Misc.), FRC, Seattle. During 1959-60 local Congressman Charles O. Porter began a campaign to build a chairlift or cableway carrying gondola cars from the rim to the shore of Crater Lake. The effort, which was opposed by the National Park Service, aroused considerable debate in the local press with most newspapers supporting the Park Service.

63. Memorandum, Superintendent, Crater Lake to Director, July 13, 1960, RG 79, 68A45, Box 11, File W22, Final Opinions and Orders, FRC, Seattle, and Portland Oregonian, August 13, 1961.

64. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1963, RG 79, 46953, File A2621, Annual Reports (Misc.), FRC, Seattle. Examples of periodical articles were Andrew Flink, “California’s Crater Lake”, Desert Magazine, XXXI (September, 1968), 6-7, and “Side Trips Around Crater Lake,” Sunset, CXLIII (August, 1969), 36-37.

65. Master Plan of Crater Lake National Park, July 1964, Chapter 1, Basic Information, The Visitor, pp. 1-8, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

66. “Crater Lake National Park, Management Objectives,” Approved June 10, 1970, United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Facts and Figures [1974], “Nostalgia” Notebook, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

67. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, 1965 (Washington, 1965), pp. 1-31.

68. The long-felt need for better fire protection in the lodge is discussed in Superintendent, Crater Lake to Regional Director, Western Region, December 20, 1965, RG 79, A7631, FRC, Seattle.

69. Hummel to Hauptli, June 28, 1968, RG 79, A13179, Box 2, File No. 13619, FRC, Seattle. The concessioner also agreed to streamline its operations to overcome a series of allegations relating to its inefficient services. See, for example, various complaints concerning park concessions in RG 79, 46953, Box 13, File A3619, FRC, Seattle.

70. Salem Capital Journal, January 15, 1968; “$2 Million Expansion to Add Facilities at Crater Lake National Park Complex,” Grow With Oregon, February 1968, 2; and “Statement for Management, Crater Lake National Park,” November 8, 1977, in U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, General Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, December, 1977, 1-6.

71. “Statement for Management, Crater Lake National Park,” August 1986, Central Files, Crater Lake National Park.

72. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Denver Service Center,Draft Visitor Use Plan, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, July, 1977, pp. 8, 10, 12. The park also had eleven picnic areas which were frequented by park visitors.

73. Portland Oregonian, November 10, 1978, and “Statement for Management, Crater Lake National Park,” November 8, 1977, in U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, General Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, December, 1977, 1-6. Various environmental groups, among them Friends of the Earth, opposed the sale of the park concession to the Canteen Company of Oregon because of TWA’s role in pressuring the Park Service into reversing a recent decision calling for the removal of unneeded overnight accommodations from Zion and Bryce Canyon national parks. Chuck Williams, National Parks Representative, Friends of the Earth, Washington, D.C., “Additional Note to ‘New House Report Criticizes National Parks Concessions,’ Concessioners Lobby Senate,” March 26, 1976, Friends of the Earth, Northwest Office, Oregon Files, Crater Lake, Box 2, Manuscripts Collection, Henry Suzallo Library, University of Washington, Seattle.

74. Two articles which provide data on the controversy surrounding the lodge during the 1980s are Kimber Craine, “Decaying Crater Lake Lodge Sparks Restoration Battle,”National Parks, LVIII (November-December, 1984), 34, and Gail Wells, “Jewel in the Rough,” Oregon Magazine, XVI (December 1986 – January 1987), 72-73.

75. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park Statement for Management, October 1986.

76. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Interim Development Concept Plan, Amendment to the General Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, April 1985, pp. 1-6.


CHAPTER 16

1. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1922, p. 130.

2. Thomson to Hall, July 25, 1925, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 700-01, Part 1, Crater Lake, Nature Study.

3. Miller to Russell, March 18, 1946, Interpretation Division Files, Crater Lake National Park.

4. “The Plans and Activities of the Nature Guide Service at Crater Lake National Park,” June 8, 1928, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-42, Box 16, Folder No. 207-04, Educational Activities Reports By Parks, FRC, San Bruno.

5. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1927, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 207-001, Part 2, Crater Lake, Reports, Annual.

6. Miller to Merriam, July 28, 1927, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 700-01, Part 1, Crater Lake, Nature Study.

7. Homuth to Hall, August 22, 1928, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, 1923-42, Box 16, Folder No. 207-04, Educational Activities Reports by Parks, FRC, San Bruno, and “Crater Lake Nature Notes,” July 1928, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

8. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1929, pp. 67, 170-71, 173. A plan of operation and organization of the park nature guide service for 1929 was prepared by Homuth. A copy of the plan may be seen in Appendix A.

9. “Plan of Administration of the Educational Activities of Crater Lake National Park,” Approved August 10, 1929, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 840, Part 1, Crater Lake, Educational Activities and Methods (General).

10. Medford Mail Tribune, February 25, 1930, Steel Scrapbooks, Crater Lake, No. 41, Vol. 9, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

11. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1930, pp. 87-88.

12. “Memorandum Regarding Relation of Aesthetic to Scientific Study in an Educational Program at Crater Lake,” by John C. Merriam, June 14, 1932, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 840, Part I, Crater Lake, Educational Activities and Methods (General). Also see John C. Merriam, “Crater Lake: A Study in Appreciation of Nature,” The American Magazine of Art (August 1933). Dr. Worth Ryder, Associate Professor of Art at the University of California, Berkeley, participated with Merriam in preparing the memorandum. Ryder to Merriam, September 6, 1932 (and enclosures), RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. C.L. 207, Worth Ryder, Part 1, Crater Lake, Administration and Personnel, Worth Ryder.

13. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1930, p. 192, and “The Sinnott Memorial in the Crater Lake National Park,” Science, LXXIII (April 10, 1931), 384-85.

14. Portland Oregonian, July 17, 1931, and Congressional Record, Senate, February 25, 1932, Vol. 75, No. 57, 4886-90.

15. Libbey had been head of the Department of Geology at Drury College in Springfield, Missouri.

16. See correspondence and reports in RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 620-049, Part 1, Crater Lake, Buildings, Observatories, 1929-31, and “Progress Report on the Development of the Sinnott Memorial and Related Educational Activities, Crater Lake National Park, June 1931 to October 1931,” Crater Lake National Park Files, Division of History, Washington Office, National Park Service. Also see “A Brief Guide to the Parapet Views, Sinnott Memorial, Crater Lake National Park,” RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 504-04, Part 1, Crater Lake, Publications, Maps.

17. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1932, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.2, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Director’s Annual Report, andAnnual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1932, p. 95.

18. “Preliminary Report on the Crater Lake Project: A Study of Appreciation of Nature Beauty, Sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the University of Oregon,” Report Prepared by R.W. Leighton, Executive Secretary of Research, University of Oregon, May 1, 1934, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 501-04, Special Articles on N.P. (Speeches). Earlier in August 1933 Merriam had published an article on the subject study in the American Magazine of Art.

19. Crater Lake National Park, “Ranger-Naturalists Temporary Manual of Operation,” 1934, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

20. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1935, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report.

21. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1936, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report; “Research Problems Carried on by the Ranger Naturalist Staff, 1935,” Old Naturalist Files, Crater Lake National Park; and “Check-List of Birds of Crater Lake National Park,” December 1937, Vertical Files, Klamath County Library, Klamath Falls, Oregon.

22. “Exhibit Layout Plan For Interior Exhibit Room, Sinnott Memorial, Crater Lake National Park,” by Ansel F. Hall, Field Division of Education, Berkeley, California, April 6, 1937, RG 79, Western Region (IV), Central Classified Files, 1923-42, Box 28, Folder 833-05, Crater Lake National Park, Sinnott Memorial Museum, 1931-37, FRC, San Bruno.

23. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1937, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report. Also see Report of Educational Activities in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon Caves National Monument, and Lava Beds National Monument for the Year ending June 30, 1937, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 840, Part 1, Crater Lake, Educational Activities and Methods (General).

24. “Outline of Research Activities in Crater Lake National Park, Lava Beds National Monument, Oregon Caves National Monument,” December 1937, Old Naturalist Files, Crater Lake National Park, and Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1938, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report.

25. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1939, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendents Annual Report.

26. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1940, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Part One, Crater Lake, Reports (General), Superintendent’s Annual Report. Also see Leavitt to Cressman, December 6, 1939 (and enclosures), RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 840, Part 1, Crater Lake, Educational Activities and Methods (General), and Doris Payne, “Human Values in Nature as Represented at Crater Lake” [Reprinted from The Living Wilderness, October 1943], National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

27. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1940, in Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1940, p. 210, and Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1941, in Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1941, pp. 324-25.

28. Crater Lake National Park, Development Outline, Scientific Research and Interpretation, February 18, 1944, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files, Crater Lake, Box 11, Folder 600.01, Part I, Master Plans, FRC, San Bruno. Also see “Objectives of National Parks With Special Reference to Educational Influence,” August 15, 1944, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 871, Crater Lake National Park, Associations, Clubs and Committees.

29. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1943, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Superintendent’s Annual Report, and First Annual School for Ranger-Naturalists Combined with Civilian Defense Training, Crater Lake National Park, 1942, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 840, Part 1, Crater Lake, Educational Activities and Methods (General).

30. Thomson to Director, National Park Service, December 17, 1923, and Cammerer to Thomson, December 22, 1923, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 201-011, Part 1, Advisory Council.

31. Annual Report of the Executive Secretary, Crater Lake Natural History Association, January 28, 1947, RG 79, 67A612, Box 3, File 0-09, FRC, Seattle.

32. Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park, 1943, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-001.4, Superintendent’s Annual Report.

33. Report of Park Naturalist, June 1947, RG 79, Western Region (IV), Monthly Activity Reports of Park Naturalists, October 1935-December 1953, Box 2 (1945-47), Folder 6-47, FRC, San Bruno.

34. Monthly Narrative Reports for Crater Lake National Park, June, July, August, 1946, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 207-02.3, Crater Lake, Superintendent’s Monthly Narrative Reports, 1943-46. Also see Reports of Park Naturalist, June, July, August, and September 1947, RG 79, Western Region (IV), Monthly Activity Reports of Park Naturalists, October 1935-December 1953, Box 2 (1945-47), Folders 6, 7, 8, and 9-47, FRC, San Bruno.

35. Annual Report of the Executive Secretary, Crater Lake National History Association, January 28, 1947, RG 79, 67A612, Box 3, File 0-09, FRC, Seattle.

36. “A Prospectus for Museum Development in Crater Lake National Park,” June 2, 1947, RG 79, File No. 620-21, Museum Contact Bldg., FRC, Seattle.

37. “Crater Lake Field School of Nature Appreciation,” July 14-August 16, 1947, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 504, Crater Lake National Park, and Memorandum for the Regional Director, by Lowell Sumner, Park Planner, May 30, 1946, RG 79, 67A723, Box 8, File No. 843-03.1, University of Oregon School, FRC, Seattle.

38. “Information on the Application for a Ranger Naturalist Position,” George C. Ruhle, Park Naturalist, Approved, January 22, 1948, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, RG 79, Western Region (IV), Monthly Activity Report of Park Naturalists, 1935-53, Box 3 (1948), Folder 1-1948, FRC, San Bruno.

39. See, for instance, Reports of the Park Naturalist, June, July, August, and September 1951, RG 79, Western Region (IV), Monthly Activity Reports of Park Naturalists, 1935-53, Box 6 (1951), Folders 6, 7, 8, and 9, FRC, San Bruno.

40. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1952, (Reprint from Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1952), p. 367.

41. Annual Report of the Crater Lake Natural History Association, 1951-52, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center. The Farner study was published as a book by the University of Kansas Press. Donald S. Farner, The Birds of Crater Lake National Park (Lawrence, 1952).

42. “Museum Prospectus, Crater Lake National Park,” October 22, 1957, National Park Service Historical Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

43. Grant and Wenonah Sharpe, 101 Wildflowers of Crater Lake National Park (Seattle, 1959).

44. Annual Reports, Crater Lake National Park, 1960 and 1961, RG 79, File No. A2621, Annual Reports (Misc.), Box 13, FRC, Seattle.

45. Annual Report on Information and Interpretive Services, Crater Lake National Park, 1960, RG 79, File No. K 819-Reports, Box 11, FRC, Seattle. For the experiences of a seasonal ranger naturalist during this period see Susanne Twight, “Two Seasons at Crater Lake,” National Parks Magazine, XXXVII (August, 1963), 15. For further data on park interpretation programs during the 1960s, see Annual Information and Interpretive Services Reports, 1962-69, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

46. Archaeological Surveys of Crater Lake National Park and Oregon Caves National Monument, Oregon, by Wilbur A. Davis, 1963, np., Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

47. The Nelson and Lidstrom studies are in the William Jasper Kerr Library at Oregon State University, Corvallis, and the Mueller thesis is in the Oregon Collection at the Main Library of the University of Oregon in Eugene.

48. Annual Report of Crater Lake Natural History Association, Incorporated, 1962, 1963, and 1964, RG 79, 46953, Box 13, File A42, Cooperating Associations (Natural History Association), FRC, Seattle.

49. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Interpretive Prospectus, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, May 1972, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

50. National Park Service, Cooperative Park Studies Unit, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, 1983 Annual Report, pp. 1-7, Library Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

51. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Harpers Ferry Center,Crater Lake National Park Collection Management Plan, 1977, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

52. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Historical Studies Plan, Crater Lake National Park, by Vernon C. Tancil, May 11, 1979, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

53. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Harpers Ferry Center,Interpretive Prospectus, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, May, 1980, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.


CHAPTER 17

1. W.G. Steel, “Crater Lake,” in The Mountains of Oregon, (Portland: David Steel, 1890), pp. 20-22.

2. Gerald W. Williams, (comp.), Judge John Breckenridge Waldo: Diaries and Letters from the High Cascades of Oregon 1880-1907, manuscript, USDA Forest Service, Umpqua National Forest, Roseburg, April 20, 1989, p. 221.

3. Earl Morse Wilbur, “Description of Crater Lake,” Mazama 1:2 (October 1897), pp. 144-145.

4. Annual Report of the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park Oregon, to the Secretary of the Interior, 1903 (Washington, 1903), p. 6.

5. Annual Report of the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, to the Secretary of the Interior, 1904 (Washington, 1904), p. 8.

6. Report of the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park Oregon to the Secretary of the Interior for the Year Ended June 30, 1905 (Washington, 1905), pp. 5-6.

7. Portland Morning Oregonian, November 7,1906.

8. Greene, Linda, “Historical Data Section,” p. 21, in U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service. Historic Structure Report: Crater Lake Lodge, Crater Lake National Park Crater Lake Oregon, by David Arbogast, et al., (Denver: NPS Branch of Cultural Resources, 1982 [1984]).

9. “Crater Lake Lodge: Additional Notes on its Architectural Significance and about the Architect,” prepared for the Historic Preservation League of Oregon, Portland, January 8,1988, p. 5.

10. Remarks of Mark Daniels, in Proceedings of the National Park Conference Held at Berkeley, California March 11, 12, and 13, 1915 (Washington, 1915), p. 19.

11. Ibid., p. 20.

12. Ibid., p. 18.

13. Mark Daniels, “Crater Lake National Park,” American Forests, XXII (October, 1916), pp. 586-592. U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations,Improvement and Management of National Parks, 64th Cong., 1st Sess., 1916, H2 Doc. 515, p. 12.

14. George Goodwin, Civil Engineer, to Horace Albright, Assistant Director, May 22, 1918, History Files, Crater Lake Lodge Pre-1930 folder, Crater Lake National Park.

15. “Interior of Great Hall, Crater Lake Lodge, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon,” n.d., Gifford Collection, Oregon Historical Society, Portland. Parkhurst was so greatly undercapitalized that Steel suggested an experiment be tried at Crater Lake where the Government would pay the company for the value of its improvements, assume title, and then lease them back to the concession for a fixed term. “Report of the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park,” [by William G. Steel], Medford, Oregon, October 1, 1914, p. 815, in Annual Report of the Department of Interior, 1914, (Washington, 1915).

16. “Details of Main Staircase and Office Counter, Crater Lake Lodge, Crater Lake, Oregon,” September 13, 1914, revised October 20, 1914, drawing no. 106-9002, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

17. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1921, p. 80.

18. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1923, p. 144.

19. Vint to Thomson, July 31,1926, RG 79, Central Files, 1907-39, File No. 900-02, Part 1, Crater Lake, National Park Concessions, Crater Lake National Park Company.

20. Ibid.

21. C.G. Thomson, Superintendent, to the Director, National Park Service, October 1,1927, RG 79, Central Files 1907-39, File No. 207-001, Part 2, Crater Lake Reports, Annual.

22. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1928, p. 13.

23. “Report on Construction Activities in Crater Lake National Park, Season 1928,” by Ward P. Webber, Resident Engineer, January 25, 1929, RG 79, Central Files 1907-39, File No. 631-2, Part 2, Roads Budget, General, 1928-30. “Report on the Naturalization of the Rim Area,” by Merel S. Sager, Assistant Landscape Architect, November 18, 1932, RG 79, Central Files 1907-39, File No. 207.

24. Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1931, p. 18, and “Final Construction Report on the Rim-Discovery Point Trail, Construction Account No. 587, by William E. Robertson, Associate Engineer, [January 1933], Interpretation Division Files, Crater Lake National Park.

25. Gold Hill News, January 9, 1930, p. 1, and National Park Service, Western Regional Office, Division of Cultural Resource Management, National Park Service Rustic Architecture: 1916-1942, by William C. Tweed, Laura E. Soulliere, and Henry G. Law. (San Francisco, 1977), p. 66.

26. Interview of Merel Sager and John Reshoft by S. Herbert Evison, undated transcription, p. 2, History Collection, Harpers Ferry Center, and Ruth Sager to Stephen Mark, December 15, 1988, Interpretation Division Files, Crater Lake National Park.

27. “FInal Narrative Report, Civilian Conservation Corps, Minor Roads and Trails, Major Roads, Park Operator to Chief Architect,” by Francis G. Lange, Resident Landscape Architect, Branch of Plans and Design, Region IV, Crater Lake National Park [October 1937], RG 79, NPS, Western Region, Region IV. “Comfort Station, Rim Area,” n.d., drawing no. CL-2001, Maintenance Division Files, Crater Lake National Park. E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, to R.W. Price, Manager, Crater Lake National Park Company, December 22, 1938, RG 79, 67A772, Box 24723, File 900-01.1 Public Utility Operator’s New Construction – Rim Area, FRC Seattle.

28. “Preliminary Sketch for Government Contact Building,” April 22, 1932, drawing no. 106-301 0A, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

29. “Final Narrative Report to Regional Landscape Architect-Region I through the Superintendent, Emergency Conservation Work 7th Period, Camp NP-1, Co. 1834 (Located at Annie Spring), Crater Lake National Park,” by Francis G. Lange, Resident Landscape Architect, Howard W. Buford, Assistant Landscape Architect, November 1, 1936, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

30. Memorandum for the Superintendent E.P. Leavitt, Francis G. Lange, Resident Landscape Architect, October 12, 1938, RG 79, 67A772, Box 24723, File 900-01.1 Public Utility Operator’s New Construction – Cabin Area, FRC Seattle. Leavitt to Price, November 15, 1938, RG 79, Central Classified Files 1907-49 Crater Lake, File No. 900-01. “Four Room Cabin for Crater Lake National Park Co.,” January 2,1941, drawing no. 1 06-8008A, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

31. “General Analysis of Rim Campground,” by John Hay, Temporary Ranger [1939-40], Interpretation Division Files, Crater Lake National Park. “Rim Area General Plan, Water Layout, Part of the Master Plan for Crater Lake National Park,” January 1942, drawing no. CL-5312, sheet 12, Maintenance Division Files, Crater Lake National Park.

32. “Report on Studies for Rim Area Campground Relocation, Crater Lake National Park,” by Ernest A. Davidson and R.D. Waterhouse, May 1, 1943, RG 79, Central Files 1933-49.

33. Comment on “Report on Studies for Rim Area Campground,” by C.P. Russell, Chief Naturalist, November 4, 1943, RG 79, Central Files 1933-49 Crater Lake, File 621 Campground. Memorandum for the Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park, Newton B. Drury, Director, January 13, 1944, RG 79, 67A618, Box 4499, File 642 Tunnel, FRC Seattle.

34. Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, April 27, 1943, RG 79, 67A772, Box 24723, File 900-01.3 Service Station Site, FRC Seattle.

35. “Museum on the Rim, Crater Lake National Park,” March 11, 1943, drawing no. CL-2037, Maintenance Division Files, Crater Lake National Park.

36. Memorandum for the Regional Director, Ernest A. Davidson, Regional Chief of Planning, April 16, 1943, RG 79, 67A616, Box 10003, File 620-21 Museum and Contact Building (Proposed), FRC Seattle.

37. Memorandum for the Regional Director, Region Four, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, April 24, 1943, RG 79, Central Classified Files 1907-49, File No. 833-05, Part 1, Crater Lake Exhibits (General), Museums.

38. Interview of Merel Sager and John Reshoft by S. Herbert Evison, op. cit., p. 5.

39. Ibid., pp. 5-6.

40. “A Prospectus for Museum Development in Crater Lake National Park, First Revision 1947,” submitted by Park Naturalist George C. Ruhle, June 2, 1947, RG 79, 67A616, File No. 620-21, Museum and Contact Building, FRC Seattle.

41. “Crater Lake National Park Operations Prospectus,” March 11, 1948, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files 1923-1965, Box 12, Folder 600:01 Crater Lake, Master Plans, Part II.

42. Kron to Drury, July 2, 1948, RG 79, Central Classified Files 1907-49 Crater Lake, File No. 900-01.

43. Roscoe Howard to N.J. Sinnott, September 5,1916, RG 79, Central Classified Files 1907-39, File No. 830, Part 4, Crater Lake National Park Roads, Trails and Bridges. Memorandum for the Secretary of the Interior from the Director, National Park Service, June 3, 1948, and Memorandum from the Regional Director, Region IV, Jack Dodd, Forester, May 10, 1948, both in RG 79, Central Classified Files 1907-49 Crater Lake, File No. 900-01.

44. “Summary of Report,” by Frank L. Ahern, Chief, Safety Office, June 24, 1948, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files 1933-49, Box 18, Folder 801 Fire, FRC San Bruno.

45. Memorandum for the Director, National Park Service, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, May 7, 1948, p. 4, File No. 207-02.3, Part I, Superintendent’s Monthly Report January 1939 – May 1951, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park. Memorandum for the Secretary of the Interior from the Director, National Park Service, June 3, 1948, loc. cit.

46. Memorandum for the Director, National Park Service, E.P. Leavitt, Superintendent, April 13, 1948, p. 3, and August 10, 1948, p. 6, File No. 207-02.3, Part I, Superintendent’s Monthly Report January 1939 – May 1951, Museum Collection, Crater Lake National Park.

47. “Report on Fire Safety, Crater Lake Lodge, Crater Lake National Park, Crater Lake, Oregon,” by Frank L. Ahern, Chief, Safety Office, National Park Service, June 22 to 25, 1948, RG 79, Region IV, Central Classified Files 1933-49, Box 18, Folder 801 Fire, FRC, San Bruno.

48. Edwin C. Kenner to Thomas Vint, December 31,1948, RG 79, Central Classified Files 1907-49 Crater Lake, File No. 900-01.

49. Price to Drury, June 4, 1948, RG 79, Central Classified Files 1907-49 Crater Lake, File No. 900-01, and “Summary of Report,” by Frank L. Ahern, loc. cit.

50. “Structural Survey and Physical Condition, Crater Lake Lodge and Annex, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon,” prepared by Haner, Ross and Sporseen, contract no. CX-9000-0-P081, Survey of Crater Lake Lodge, February 1982, p. 6, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

51. “Engineers Report, Structural Survey and Physical Condition, Crater Lake Lodge and Annex, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon,” by S.A. Ross and H.V. Tunks, N.W. Haner and Associates, Portland, June 1953, p. 45, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

52. “Rim Area, Part of the Master Plan for Crater Lake National Park,” March 1956, drawing no. CL-201 4D, Maintenance Division Files, Crater Lake National Park.

53. “Addition to Dining Hall,” May 1, 1956, drawing no. 106-8051, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

54. “Suggested Layout, Underground Walkway, Museum Site to Sinnott Memorial,” December 1954, drawing no. CL-2250, Maintenance Division Files, Crater Lake National Park.

55. “RIm Area, Part of the Master Plan, Crater Lake National Park,” June 4,1947, drawing no. 2014C, Maintenance Division Files, Crater Lake National Park. Drury to Harris Ellsworth [Oregon Congressman], March 24, 1948, RG 79, Central Classified Files 1907-1949 Crater Lake, File 631-02.

56. National Park Service News Release, September 11,1956, RG 79, 67A883, Box 9, File A98 Mission 66, FRC Seattle. Expectations that a visitor center would be built had a firm foundation because 114 such facilities were constructed in various units of the National Park System during the Mission 66 years. See Ronald A. Foresta, America’s National Parks and Their Keepers, (Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 1984), p. 54.

57. “Winter Observation Platform,” January 2,1957, drawing no. CL-1003, Maintenance Division Files, Crater Lake National Park.

58. “Visitor Center,” January 7,1957, drawing no. CL-3144, Maintenance Division Files, Crater Lake National Park.

59. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Vacation Survey, Rogue River Basin, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon Caves National Monument, [1950], p. 17. As a result of Wirth’s visit to the park in July 1960, the realignment work also included elimination of the island in the plaza parking area. New pavement accommodated more cars by expanding the lot an average of 20 feet south near the cafeteria. See P.E. Smith to N.B. Wood, July 27, 1960, History Files, Roads and Trails Project Documentation folder, Crater Lake National Park.

60. Portland Oregonian, August 13, 1961, p. 41. “Rim Village Narrative, Part of the Master Plan, Crater Lake National Park,” December, 1961, p. RV-1, Maintenance Division Files, Crater Lake National Park. Memorandum to the Regional Director, Region Four, J. Leonard Volz, Superintendent, January 21, 1966, p. 2, in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library.

61. Memorandum to the Regional Director, Region Four, John B. Wosky, Regional Chief of Operations, Region Four, February 13, 1962, in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library.

62. Interview of Merel Sager and John Reshoft by S. Herbert Evison, op. cit., p. 12.

63. “Rim Village, Part of the Master Plan, Crater Lake National Park,” October 1961, drawing no. CL-201 4F, Maintenance Division Files, Crater Lake National Park.

64. Memorandum to the Regional Director, Western Region, W. Ward Yeager, Superintendent, January 21, 1964, RG 79, 69A763, Box 43, File D-225, FRC Seattle.

65. Memorandum to the Regional Director, Western Region, J. Leonard Volz, Superintendent, March 3, 1967, p. 1, in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library.

66. Memorandum to the Regional Director, Western Region, J. Leonard Volz, Superintendent, December 20, 1965, RG 79, XA7631, Park File, FRC Seattle.

67. Memorandum to the Regional Director, Western Region, J. Leonard Volz, Superintendent, January 21, 1966, pp. 2-3, in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library.

68. “Preliminary Study for a Headquarters Development at South (Klamath) Entrance, Crater Lake National Park,” December 17, 1942, drawing no. CL-2031, File 601.0121, in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library.

69. Memorandum to the Regional Director, Western Region, J. Leonard Volz, Superintendent, September 8,1966, p. 2, in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library.

70. “Evaluation of Certain Properties Lying Within and Adjacent to Crater Lake National Park for Crater Lake Lodge, Inc.,” by Jerry Holbrook, Charles W. Sexton Insurance Company, Portland, November 23, 1966, History Files, Concession Companies folder, Crater Lake National Park.

71. Memorandum to the Director, National Park Service, J. Leonard Volz, Superintendent, December 12, 1966, and Memorandum to the Regional Director, Western Region, J. Leonard Volz, Superintendent, March 3, 1967, p. 2, both in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library.

72. Memorandum to the Regional Director, Western Region, J. Leonard Volz, Superintendent, September 8,1966, op. cit., and Memorandum to the Regional Director, Western Region, J. Leonard volz, Superintendent, March 3,1967, op. cit. “Rim Village, Part of the Master Plan for Crater Lake National Park,” February 1967, drawing no. 106-2014G, and “Sinnott Memorial Remodel,” January 1967, drawing no. 106-3312, both in Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

73. “Crater Lake National Park Interpretive Prospectus, 1967,” by R.G. Bruce, Chief Park Naturalist, pp. 5-7, in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library.

74. Memorandum to the Chief, Design and Construction, SSC, Per Rundberg, Chief Architect, DCSSC, August 15, 1967, in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library.

75. Griffin and Peyton to Hartzog, February 28, 1967, in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library. Volz left the park in 1967 to direct the Field Operations Study Team (FOST), a task force whose recommendations were used to justify the establishment of a group office in Klamath Falls. Munson Valley reverted back to a field headquarters, which was its status before 1965. For Volz’s involvement in FOST, see the NPS Newsletter 4:24 (November 27, 1969), p. 1.

76. Memorandum to the Regional Director, Western Region, J. Leonard Volz, Superintendent, January 21,1966, p. 2, loc. cit.

77. “$2 Million Expansion To Add Facilities At Crater Lake National Park Complex,” Grow With Oregon, XI (February 1968), p. 2.

78. “Schematic Developed Area Plan, Rim Village,” September 1968, drawing in untitled notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library. Griffin to Spaulding, October 21, 1968, p. 2, in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library.

79. Memorandum to the Director, National Park Service, Luis A. Gastellum, Deputy Assistant Director, Administration, and Harry Elsey, Chief, Branch of Financial Management, Operations, October 14, 1968, p. 10, and Memorandum to Chief, Office of Resource Planning, SSC, John A. Rutter, Regional Director, Western Region, November 14,1968, pp. 1-2, both in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library.

80. Larry Smith and Lloyd Smith, comps., The Smith Brothers’ Chronological History: Crater Lake National Park, Oregon. 1832 to 1982 [1982], and Memorandum to the Regional Director, Region Four, W. Ward Yeager, Superintendent, July 27, 1961, p. 2, in “Location of a New Headquarters Site” notebook, Crater Lake National Park Library.

81. “Addition and Alterations to Cafeteria Building,” June 2,1971, drawing no. 106-70005E, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center. Glen F. Happel, Superintendent, Crater Lake Lodge, Inc., to Donald M. Spaulding, General Superintendent, National Park Service, Klamath Falls Group Office, September 23, 1971, History Files, Crater Lake National Park.

82. “Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Proposed Construction of Employee Dormitory at Rim Village, Crater Lake National Park,” April 1972, pp. 1-3, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

83. Smith and Smith, comps., op. cit.

84. Eugene Register-Guard, June 6, 1973.

85. Portland Oregonian. December 7, 1973. Reed’s order was somewhat analogous to Drury’s earlier resolution of the tunnel proposal and reflected the growing role in NPS policy that conservation groups were assuming during this time. Nathaniel Reed’s role as de facto director of the agency after Hartzog was dismissed is mentioned in Foresta, op. cit., pp. 85-86.

86. “Department of the Interior, Environmental Assessment, Master Plan, Crater Lake National Park,” March 1975, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

87. “Environmental Assessment for the Improvement of Sewer Systems at Rim village and Munson Valley, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, June 1976, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

88. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Historic Structure Report: Crater Lake Lodge. Crater Lake National Park Crater Lake Oregon, by David Arbogast, Linda W. Greene, Catherine H. Blee, and James M. Ellis, March 1982 [April 1984], p. 127.

89. National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-625, November 10, 1978. The similarity between the NPS’s new planning process and that mandated for the Bureau of Land Management can be tied to Robert Herbst, Assistant Secretary of Interior during the Carter Administration. Herbst had come to the department from the Izaak Walton League of America, an organization which was largely responsible in obtaining passage of BLM’s organic legislation in 1976.

90. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Draft General Development Plan Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, July 1977, p. 9.

91. Ibid., p. 8.

92. Ibid., p. 9.

93. Medford Mail Tribune, September 4, 1977.

94. Memorandum to the Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, Frank J. Betts, Superintendent, March 1, 1978, in “Emergency Survey of Concession Facilities, Crater Lake National Park,” May 1981, pp. 32-33, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

95. “Engineers Report, Structural Survey and Physical Condition, Crater Lake Lodge and Annex, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon,” by Haner, Ross and Sporseen, Inc., Portland, revised February 1982, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

96. “Emergency Survey of Concession Facilities,” op. cit., p. 28.

97. Medford Mail Tribune, November 21, 1980, and Salem Statesman Journal, November 26, 1980, p. 11A.

98. “Emergency Survey of Concession Facilities,” op. cit., p. ii.

99. Medford Mail Tribune, December 11, 1980, and Portland Oregon Journal, December 11, 1980, p. 28.

100. Crater Lake National Park, Natural and Cultural Resource Management Plan and Environmental Assessment, 1986, p. 95, Resource Management Files, Crater Lake National Park Library. Elisabeth Potter, Preservation Specialist, [Oregon] State Historic Preservation Office to Daniel J. Tobin, Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, January 14, 1981, Interpretation Division Files, Crater Lake National Park.

101. “Crater Lake Lodge, A Total Rehabilitation Scenario, Combined Option,” November 1986, p. 3, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

102. Natural and Cultural Resource Management Plan and Environmental Assessment, 1986, op. cit., p. 96.

103. Memorandum to the Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park, Daniel J. Tobin, Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, December 16, 1981, in Historic Structure Report: Crater Lake Lodge, op. cit., pp. 576-577.

104. “Status Report, Crater Lake National Park, Package 220, Lodge Rehabilitation,” February 14, 1983, History Files, Crater Lake National Park. Portland Oregonian, April 26, 1983.

105. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Winter use Study, Crater Lake National Park Oregon [1980], Files, Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Seattle, and “Analysis of Feasibility of Year-Round Lodging, Demand, and Cost Effectiveness for Concessioner Operation,” supplement to the 1982 Market Study, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center. It should be brought out that questions remain about the wisdom of basing a multi-million dollar development on these studies, neither of which had a scope to adequately access a new hotel’s commercial viability at Rim Village, let alone its social or environmental impact. (Conversation with DSC Concessions Analyst Russell Pishnery, September 8,1989).

106. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Planning Process Guideline, July 1978, chapter 7, p. 12.

107. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Environmental Assessment. Development Concept Plan, Amendment to the General Management Plan Crater Lake National Park, February 1984.

108. “Crater Lake Lodge, A Total Rehabilitation Scenario, Combined Option,” op. cit., p. 5.

109. Alfred Staehli, Oregon AlA State Preservation Coordinator, to Daniel J. Tobin, Jr., Regional Director, Pacific Northwest RegIon, March 23, 1984, and Robert Fink, Acting Chief, Western Division of Project Review, Advisory Council On Historic Preservation, to Daniel J. Tobin, Jr., Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, April 10, 1984, Interpretation Division Files, Crater Lake National Park.

110. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Environmental Assessment, Development Concept Plan, Amendment to the General Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park. February, 1984, pp. 67-68.

111. “Crater Lake Lodge, A Total Rehabilitation Scenario, Combined Option,” op. cit., p. 5.

112. Medford Mail Tribune, July 29, 1984, p. 18C, and Portland Oregonian, August 28, 1984.

113. Weaver to Dickenson, August 27, 1984, p. 2, Interpretation Division Files, Crater Lake National Park, and Klamath Falls Herald and News, September 12, 1984, p. 2.

114. Portland Oregonian, September 17, 1984, and Klamath Falls Herald and News, September 17, 1984, p. 2.

115. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Interim Development Concept Plan Amendment to the General Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park Oregon, April, 1985.

116. “Report on Crater Lake Lodge to the House of Representatives, Subcommittees on Public Lands and National Parks, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs,” March 1986, p. 1, in volume one of Technical Analysis Report for Rehabilitation, Crater Lake Lodge, Crater Lake National Park by Broome, Oringdulph, O’Toole, Rudolf, Boles and Associates, P.C., Architects, et al., Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

117. Alfred Staehli, Historic Structures Maintenance Guide, [Mount Rainier National Park], NPS Pacific Northwest Region, Cultural Resources Division (Seattle, 1983), 73 p.

118. “Crater Lake Lodge, Historic Preservation Architecture and Architectural Conservator Services,” by Alfred Staehli, AIA, and Associates, November 1985, p. 284, in BOOR/A, op. cit.

119. “Report on Crater Lake Lodge to the House of Representatives, Subcommittees on Public Lands and National Parks, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs,” March 1986, p. 7, in volume one of BOOR/A, op. cit.

120. Klamath Falls Herald and News, March 2, 1986, p. 6, and Medford Mail Tribune, March 2, 1986, p. 2A.

121. “Crater Lake Lodge, A Total Rehabilitation Scenario, Combined Option,” op. cit., p. 1.

122. “Crater Lake Lodge–Annex Removed, Partial Rehabilitation Scenarios, (Alternative B), B 1 Interpretive Display-Dining, B-2 Rustic Lodging-Dining,” Schematic Study for Development Concept Plan, by Denver Service Center Historical Architects Kenkel and Frazier, March 1987, pp. 4-5, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

123. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Supplement to the 1984 Environmental Assessment, Development Concept Plan, Amendment to the General Management Plan Mazama Campground / Rim Village Corridor, Crater Lake National Park Oregon. October, 1987 [Final Draft July, 1987], p. 26.

124. “Ecology of Streams of Crater Lake National Park,” by Dr. Stan Gregory, Dr. Gary Lamberti, Randy Wildman, Linda Ashkenas, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, October 30, 1987, p. v, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

125. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Supplement to the 1984 Environmental Assessment, October 1987, op. cit., p. 28.

126. Portland Oregonian, January 21, 1988, Klamath Falls Herald and News, January 24, 1988, pp. 1-2, Eugene Register-Guard, February 2,1988, p. 8A, and Medford Mail Tribune, February 3, 1988, p. 3A.

127. Klamath Falls Herald and News February 1,1988, p. 7, and Medford Mail Tribune, February 9, 1988, p. 3A.

128. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Proposed Action and Finding of No SIgnificant Impact, Development Concept Plan, Environmental Assessment, Amendment to the General Management Plan, Mazama Campground / Rim Village Corridor, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, May 1988, pp. 2-3, Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

129. Klamath Falls Herald and News, February 25, 1988, and Medford Mail Tribune, February 26, 1988, p. 16A.

130. Proposed Action and Finding of No Significant Impact, May 1988, loc. cit., pp. 2-3.

131. Memorandum to the Assistant Manager, Pacific Northwest / Western Team, DSC, Douglas B. Cornell, Jr., Architect/Planner, Pacific Northwest / Western Team, August 18,1976, History Files, Crater Lake National Park.

132. Karl von Rosenberg, A/E Manager, DSC, to Fletcher Fan’ Ayotte [site plan contractor], June 8, 1989, History Files, Crater Lake National Park. Memorandum, Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, Robert E. Benton, Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park and Oregon Caves National Monument, September 15, 1989, loc. cit.

133. Memorandum, Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park, Charles H. Odegaard, Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, January 18, 1989, loc. cit.

134. “Historic Landscape Report,” [outline by Cathy Gilbert, Cultural Resources Division, Pacific Northwest Region], July 11,1989, loc. cit.

135. “Technical Memorandum, Crater Lake Lodge, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon,” by David C. Moyano, Structural Engineer, Project Manager, CH2M Hill Corvallis [Oregon] Office, June 1989, loc. cit.

136. Medford Mail Tribune, June 19, 1989. “Rehabilitation of Crater Lake Lodge, Crater Lake National Park, Preliminary Structural Design, Structural Engineering Program, CH2M Hill Consulting Engineers, for the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, September 25, 1989,” Files, Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.

137. Memorandum, Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, Robert E. Benton, Superintendent, Crater Lake National Park and Oregon Caves National Monument, September 15, 1989, History Files, Lodge folder, Crater Lake National Park.

138. Portland Oregonian, September 26, 1989.