Classification of the Soils
The system of soil classification used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (Soil Survey Staff, 1998 and 1999). Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series.
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the field or inferred from those observations or from laboratory measurements. Table 22 shows the classification of the soils in the park. The categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Twelve soil orders are recognized. The differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-forming processes and the degree of soil formation. Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An example is Andisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil genesis and are important to plant growth or properties that reflect the most important variables within the orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder indicates the order. An example is Cryand (Cry, meaning icy cold, plus and, from Andisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; type of saturation; and base status. Each great group is identified by the name of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the soil. An example is Vitricryands (Vitri, meaning presence of glass, plus cryand, the suborder of the Andisols that has cold temperatures).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The typic subgroup is the central concept of the great group; it is not necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Extragrades have some properties that are not representative of the great group but do not indicate transitions to any other taxonomic class. Each subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives preceding the name of the great group. The adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great group. An example is Typic Vitricryands.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on the basis of physical and chemical properties and other characteristics that affect management. Generally, the properties are those of horizons below plow depth where there is much biological activity. Among the properties and characteristics considered are particle size, mineral content, soil temperature regime, soil depth, and reaction. A family name consists of the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil properties. An example is ashy, amorphic Typic Vitricryands.
SERIES. The series consists of soils within a family that have horizons similar in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the park is described. Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it formed are identified for each series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil, that is typical of the series in the park is described. The detailed description of each soil horizon follows standards in the “Soil Survey Manual” (Soil Survey Division Staff, 1993). Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined in “Soil Taxonomy” (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) and in “Keys to Soil Taxonomy” (Soil Survey Staff, 1998). Unless otherwise indicated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon description is the range of important characteristics of the soils in the series.