Whitebark Pines in Peril in the Northern Rocky Mountains

Whitebark Pines in Peril, Northern Rocky Mountains by Larry Eifert

Commissioned by Crater Lake Institute and painted by Larry Eifert in 2007, this painting focuses on the keystone species that is rapidly declining throughout the West. It shows the entire ecosystem that is dependent on this tree for food and shelter. It was featured in several magazines and other publications, including a feature in American Forests magazine.

Whitebark Pines in the Rockies mural species list


  1. Whitebark Pine Pinus albicaulis
  2. Common Raven Corvus spp.
  3. Hairy Woodpecker Picoides villosus
  4. Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra
  5. Clark’s Nutcracker Nucifraga Columbiana
  6. Black-backed Woodpecker Picoides arcticus
  7. Smoke from a distant wildfire
  8. Whitebark Pine Pinus albicaulis seedlings and young saplings – the next generation of whitebarks are beginning
  9. Mountain Bluebird Sialia currucoides
  10. Red Squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus
  11. White-breasted Nuthatch  Sitta carolinensis
  12. Mountain Chickadee Parus gambeli
  13. Fire scar on trunk of whitebark pine – indication of past fires these trees have survived.
  14. Whitebark Pine seedlings – the next generation of whitebarks.
  15. Spreading Phlox Phlox diffusa
  16. Currant Ribes spp. Host species for blister rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola that is currently killing many of these ancient whitebark pines.
  17. White-headed Woodpeckers Picoides albolarvatus
  18. Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus
  19. Pine Grosbeak Pinicola enucleator
  20. Clark’s Nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana
  21. Williamson’s Sapsucker Sphyrapicus thyroideus
  22. Cassin’s Finch Carpodacus cassinii
  23. Paintbrush (Castilleja miniata)
  24. Chipmunk (Eutamias spp
  25. Grizzly Bear Ursus arctos horribilis
  26. Beargrass Xerophyllum tenax
  27. Whitebark Pine cones and seeds, important food sources for all these animals and birds.
  28. Arrowleaf Balsamroot Balsamorhiza sagittata
  29. Red-breasted Nuthatch Sitta Canadensis
  30. Clark’s Nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana tearing cones apart for seeds.
  31. Black Bear Ursus americanus
  32. Mature and healthy whitebark pine
  33. Dead whitebark pine, providing homes for birds and animals
  34. Brown whitebark pine treetop needles showing effects of blister rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola

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