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Historic Resource Study, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, 1984


Table of Contents

Complete Report (HTML)


I. Formation of the Crater Lake Environment

A. Northern Plateau Area of Southern Oregon

B. Prehistoric Indian Occupation of the Crater Lake Vicinity

C. Historic Indian Occupation of the Crater Lake Vicinity

1. The Klamaths

2. The Modocs

II. White Men Slowly Penetrate the Southern Oregon Wilderness

A. Early Exploration by Fur Traders

B. New Land Routes Through Southern Oregon Studied

C. Opening of the Southern Emigrant Route

D. Gold Rush of 1849 Accelerates Oregon Settlement

E. Gold Mining Begins in Southern Oregon

III. Discovery of Crater Lake

A. John Wesley Hillman

B. Chauncey Nye

C. Captain Franklin B. Sprague

D. Later Visits to Crater Lake

E. James Sutton Party

IV. Indian Perceptions of Crater Lake

A. Early Observations by White Men

B. Role of Crater Lake in Shamanistic Quests

C. Indian Myths Explaining Geological Occurrences

D. Legends Surrounding Crater Lake

V. Geological and Biological Information on Crater Lake Area

A. Mount Mazama

B. Formation of Lake

C. Description of Lake

1. Statistics

2. Color

D. Volcanic Parks

1. Importance in National Park System

2. Importance of Crater Lake National Park

E. Points of Geological Interest in Crater Lake National Park

1. Rim Slopes

2. Wizard Island

3. The Watchman

4. Hillman Peak

5. Devils Backbone

6. Llao Rock

7. Red Cone, Timber Crater

8. Pumice Desert

9. Mazama Rock

10. Palisade Point

11. Wineglass

12. Redcloud Cliff

13. Castle Rock (Pumice Castle)

14. Mount Scott

15. Kerr Notch

16. The Pinnacles

17. Phantom Ship

18. Sun Notch

19. Godfrey Glen and Colonnades

20. Union Peak

21. Llao's Hallway

F. Other Natural Resources

1. Forests and Plant Life

2. Wildlife

G. Will Mount Mazama Erupt Again?

VI. Steps Leading Toward Establishment of Crater Lake National Park

A. Further Exploration of Crater Lake by Boat

B. Crater Lake Meets the Camera

C. Scientific Studies Commence

D. William Gladstone Steel

E. Commercial Exploitation Threatens National Forestlands

F. Emergence of a National Conservation Philosophy

G. Steel Mounts a Campaign to Save Crater Lake

H. The Dutton Survey

I . John Muir Assists the National Park Concept

J. Federal Forest Reservations

K. Cascade Range Forest Reserve

L. The Mazamas Expedition to Crater Lake

M. The National Forest Commission Visits Crater Lake

N. Crater Lake National Park

O. Provisions of the Crater Lake Act

P. William Steel and the Preservation of Crater Lake

Q. Park Boundaries

VII. Concessionaire Development of Visitor Services

A. The Crater Lake Company Begins Construction of Crater Lake Lodge

B. The Crater Lake National Park Company Takes Over Park Concessions

C. Cafeteria and Cabins Added to Rim Village

D. The National Park Service Purchases the Lodge and Ponders Its Future

E. Importance of Crater Lake Lodge

VIII. Roads of Crater Lake National Park

A. Approaches to the Park

B. Entrance Road and Bridges

1. Early Conditions Call for Improvements

2. A New Road to the Rim

3. First Cars Reach the Lake

4. Accounts by Early Visitors

5. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Plans the Park Road System

6. Several New Roads Contemplated

7. Plans Made for First Rim Road

8. Annie Spring and Goodbye Creek Bridges

9. Plans Made for Second Rim Road

10. Motorways

11. Restraints Imposed by Snow and a World War

12. New Bridges Needed

13. Evaluations and Recommendations

IX. Trails and Campgrounds of Crater Lake National Park

A. Rim Trails

B. Wizard Island Trails

C. Castle Crest and Lake Circle Trails

D. Other Trails

E. Summary of Park Trail System

1. On the Rim

a) Watchman Trail

b) Devils Backbone

c) Llao Rock

d) Cleetwood Cove Trail

e) Mount Scott

f) Crater Peak

g) Castle Crest Wildflower Gardens

h) Canyon Rim Loop Trail

i) Hillman Peak Trail

j) Sun Notch

2. Northwest Section of Park

a) Red Cone

b) Boundary Springs

3. Northeast Section of Park

a) Timber Crater

b) Wineglass Motorway

4. Southeast Section of Park

a) Crater Peak

5. Southwest Section of Park

a) Union Peak

b) Snow Crater

c) Llao's Hallway

F. Campgrounds

1. Rim Campground

2. Annie Spring Campground

3. Lost Creek Campground

4. White Horse Campground

5. Cold Spring Campground

G. Evaluations and Recommendations

X. Construction of Government Buildings and Landscaping in Crater Lake National Park

A. Functionalism Dictates Building Styles at Annie (Anna) Spring Camp

B. The Rustic Architecture Program of the National Park Service

C. Kiser Studio (Bldg. #066)

D. Headquarters Moved to Government Camp

E. Community House Erected and Government Headquarters Enlarged (Bldg. #116)

F. Building Inventory of 1926

G. Western Field Office of National Park Service Implements Rustic Architecture Program

H. Construction Plans for 1928

1. Superintendent's Residence

2. Employee's Cabin

3. Medford Warehouse

4. Barn at Government Camp

5. Comfort Station at Lake

6. Dam, Pumphouse, and Pumping Equipment for Rim

7. Toilets and Bath at Government Camp

8. Septic Tank at Government Camp

I. Building Inventory of 1929

J. Physical Changes from 1930 to 1931

1. Employee's Cottage at Government Camp

2. Addition to Utility Shed at Government Camp (Bldg. #005)

3. Comfort Station in Rim Campground

4. Headquarters Building

5. Watchman Lookout Station (Bldg. #168)

6. Storeroom and Garage at Government Camp

K. Important Additions to Headquarters Complex in 1932

1. Administration Building

2. Superintendent's Residence

3. Naturalist's Residence

4. Ranger Dormitory (Club House)

5. Final Field Activity in 1932

a. Employee's Quarters (Naturalist's Residence)

b. Oil House at Government Camp

c. Superintendent's Residence

d. Machine Shop and Utility Shed at Government Camp

e. Ranger Dormitory (Club House)

L. Civilian Conservation Corps Work Performed in Park

M. Landscaping

1. Rim Area

2. Ranger Dormitory, Superintendent's Residence, Naturalist's Residence, and three Employee Residences

N. Emergency Conservation Work Camps

1. Camp No. 1

2. Camp No. 2 (Wineglass Camp)

3. Work Accomplished

O. Construction Activity Tapers Off

XI. Summary of Important Structures

A. List of Classified Structures

B. National Register of Historic Places

C. Structures Eligible for the National Register

1. Headquarters Area

2. Watchman Fire Lookout (Bldg. #168)

3. Sinnott Memorial Building (Bldg. #067)

D. Structures Not Eligible for the National Register

1. Exhibit Building (Bldg. #066)

2. Community Building

3. Cafeteria Cabins

4. Sleepy Hollow Residential Area

5. Steel Circle Residential Area

6. Miscellaneous Structures

XII. General Recommendations for Interpretation


A. "Discovery of Crater Lake," by J.W. Hillman

B. "Blue Lake," [by J.W. Sessions]

C. "Lake Majesty," by F.B. Sprague

D. "How Crater Lake was Discovered," by O.A. Stearns

E. "The Legends of Crater Lake," by W. Craig Thomas

F. Correspondence Relative to Withdrawal from Settlement of Land Surrounding Crater Lake

G. "Crater Lake," by Joaquin Miller

H. Names and Places of Crater Lake


End Notes

Recommended Reading

Historical Base Map





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