Weather and Climate Inventory, Klamath Network, National Park Service, 2007
1.3. Purpose of Measurements
Climate inventory and monitoring climate activities should be based on a set of guiding fundamental principles. Any evaluation of weather/climate monitoring programs begins with asking the following question:
• What is the purpose of weather and climate measurements?
Evaluation of past, present, or planned weather/climate monitoring activities must be based on the answer to this question.
Weather and climate data and information constitute a prominent and widely requested component of the NPS I&M networks (I&M 2006). Within the context of the NPS, the following services constitute the main purposes for recording weather and climate observations:
• Provide measurements for real-time operational needs and early warnings of potential hazards (landslides, mudflows, washouts, fallen trees, plowing activities, fire conditions, aircraft and watercraft conditions, road conditions, rescue conditions, fog, restoration and remediation activities, etc.).
• Provide visitor education and aid interpretation of expected and actual conditions for visitors while they are in the park and for deciding if and when to visit the park.
• Establish engineering and design criteria for structures, roads, culverts, etc., for human comfort, safety, and economic needs.
• Consistently monitor climate over the long-term to detect changes in environmental drivers affecting ecosystems, including both gradual and sudden events.
• Provide retrospective data to understand a posteriori changes in flora and fauna.
• Document for posterity the physical conditions in and near the park units, including mean, extreme, and variable measurements (in time and space) for all applications.
The last three items in the preceding list are pertinent primarily to the NPS I&M networks; however, all items are important to NPS operations and management. Most of the needs in this list overlap heavily. It is often impractical to operate separate climate measuring systems that also cannot be used to meet ordinary weather needs, where there is greater emphasis on timeliness and reliability.