Probing – Notes

Notes

The author extends thanks to Dr. James LaBounty, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, for his editorial assistance and encouragement and to Stan Geiger, Shapiro and Associates, Portland, who spent hundreds of hours pro bono correctly identifying and photographing the phytoplankton in Crater Lake.

  1. C. E. Dutton, “Crater Lake, Oregon,” Science 7:160 (1886): 179.
  2. W G. Steel, quoted in Ron Warfield et al., Crater Lake: The Story behind the Scenery (Las Vegas, Nev.: KC Publications, 1982), 41.
  3. Dutton, “Crater Lake,” 179.
  4. For example, see Warfield et al., Crater Lake, 44.
  5. “Act of May 22, 1902, Reserving a Certain Tract of Land from Public Lands in Oregon as a Public Park,” U.S.C., title 16, sect. 121, 122, 123.
  6. D. W Larson, “Crater Lake Limnological Studies, 1983,” Annual Report on the Limnology and Water Quality Monitoring Program at Crater Lake National Park, Oregon (Seattle: National Park Service, Pacific Northwest Region, 1984); Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon), September 27, 1987; D. W. Larson et al., “Limnological Response of Crater Lake to Possible Long-Term Sewage Influx,” inCrater Lake: An Ecosystem Study, ed. E. T. Drake et al. (San Francisco: Pacific Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1990), 197-212; U.S. Department of the Interior, Crater Lake National Park, Mazama Campground of Rim Village Corridor, Oregon (Seattle: National Park Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 1987).
  7. W T. Edmondson, The Uses of Ecology (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991), 286.
  8. Robert M. Linn, ed., Proceedings of the First Conference on Scientific Research in the National Parks, vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1976), xxii-xxiii.
  9. K. R. Cranson, Crater Lake, Gem of the Cascades (Lansing, Mich.: KRC Press, 1982); J. V. Byrne, “Morphometry of Crater Lake, Oregon,” Limnology and Oceanography 10:3 (1965): 462-5.
  10. K. N. Phillips and A. S. Van Denburgh, “Hydrology of Crater, East and Davis Lakes, Oregon,” U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper, No. 1859-E, 1968; K. T. Redmond, “Crater Lake Climate and Lake Level Variability,” in Crater Lake, ed. Drake et al., 127-41; B. F. Walker, “The Frozen Lake,” Crater Lake Nature Notes 15 (1949): 8; R. J. Collier et al., “Chemical and Physical Properties of the Water Column at Crater Lake, Oregon,” in Crater Lake, ed. Drake et al., 69-79.
  11. J. S. Diller, “Crater Lake, Oregon,” National Geographic 7 (February 1897): 33-46; Dutton, “Crater Lake.”
  12. J. S. Diller and H. B. Patton, “The Geology and Petrography of Crater Lake National Park,” U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. No. 3, 1902; Redmond, “Crater Lake Climate.”
  13. Diller and Patton, “The Geology and Petrography of Crater Lake,” 52.
  14. W. Van Winkle, “Quality of the Surface Waters of Oregon,” U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper, No. 363, 1914, 43. They tested for silica, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, and total dissolved solids.
  15. G. Kemmerer et al., “Northwestern Lakes of the United States,” Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 39 (1924): 51-140.
  16. Diller, “Crater Lake,” 379.
  17. J. S. Brode, “The Waters of Crater Lake,” Crater Lake Nature Notes 7:3 (1934): 4-5; idem. “Food Habits of Crater Lake Fish,” Crater Lake Nature Notes 8:2 (1935) 11-13; idem, “The Denizens of Crater Lake.” Northwest Science 12:3 (1938): 50-7.
  18. A. D. Hasler, “Fish Biology and Limnology of Crater Lake. Oregon,” Journal of Wildlife Management 2:3 (1938): 95; A. D. Haslerand D. S. Famer, “Fisheries Investigations in Crater Lake. Oregon, 1937-1940,” Journal of Wildlife Management 6:4 (1942): 319-27.
  19. Kemmerer et al., “Northwestern Lakes”; 0. L. Wallis and C. E. Bond. “Establishment of Kokanee in Crater Lake, Oregon,” Journal of Wildlife Management 14:2 (1950): 190-3.
  20. Hasler, “Fish Biology,” and Hasler and Farner, “Fisheries Investigations,” 324.
  21. Wallis and Bond, “Establishment of Kokanee”; M. W Buktenica and G. L. Larson. “Ecology of Kokanee Salmon and Rainbow Trout in Crater Lake,” in Crater Lake, ed. Drake et al., 185-95.
  22. C. L. Utterback et al., “Some Planktonic and Optical Characteristics of Crater Lake, Ecology 23:1 (1942): 102.
  23. Ibid.
  24. H. E. Sovereign, “The Diatoms of Crater Lake, Oregon,” Transactions of the American Microscopy Society 77:1 (1958): 96-134; idem. “New and Rare Diatoms from Oregon and Washington,” Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences31:14 (1963):349-68.
  25. C. W. Fairbanks and J. R. Rowley. “Lake Research, 1954.” File Report, Crater Lake National Park, National Park Service, 1954; idem, “Tribute to the Clarity of Crater Lake,” Crater Lake Nature Notes 20 (1954): 34-6; J. R. Rowley and C. W. Fairbanks, “Aquatic Flowering Plants of Crater Lake,” Crater Lake Nature Notes 20 (1954): 36-9.
  26. J. R. Rowley and J. S. Rowley, “The Discovery of Myriophyllum in Crater Lake,”Crater Lake Nature Notes 22 (1956): 3-4; K. Thomasson, “Planktological Notes from Western North America,” Arkivfor Botanik 4:14 (1956): 437-63.
  27. Howel Williams. “The Floor of Crater Lake, Oregon.” American Journal of Science259 (1961):81-3.
  28. Byrne. “Morphometry of Crater Lake.”
  29. C. H. Nelson, “Geological Limnology of Crater Lake, Oregon” (M.S. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1961); idem, “Sediments of Crater Lake, Oregon,” Geological Society of America Bulletin 78 (1967): 833-48.
  30. Phillips and Van Denburgh, “Hydrology of Crater, East and Davis Lakes”; E. B. Thornton, “Investigations at Crater Lake. Hydrologic Benchmark,” Water Resources Division Bulletin, USGS (January 1965), 23-6; U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Resources Data, Oregon, Water Year 1996,” Water Data Report OR-96-1, 1997).
  31. W. E. Kartchner and J. E. Doerr. “Wind Currents in Crater Lake as Revealed by the Old Man of the Lake.” Crater Lake Nature Notes 11:2 (1938): 31-5; H. V Kibby et al., “Temperature and Current Observations in Crater Lake, Oregon,” Limnology and Oceanography 13:2 (1968): 363-6.
  32. F. O. Hoffman, “The Horizontal Distribution and Vertical Migrations of the Limnetic Zooplankton in Crater Lake. Oregon” (M.S. thesis. Oregon State University, Corvallis. 1969); J. G. Malick, “Population Dynamics of Selected Zooplankton in Three Oligotropic Oregon Lakes” (M.S. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 1971); D. W. Larson, “Temperature, Transparency, and Phytoplankton Productivity in Crater Lake, Oregon.” Limnology and Oceanography 17:3 (1972): 410-17.
  33. H. L. Volchok. “Strontium-90 Fallout in Crater Lake,” Technical Memorandum. No. 67- 16, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission HASL Report, 1967; H. L. Volchok, et al., “Ocean Fallout: The Crater Lake Experiment.” Journal of Geophysical Research75:6 (1970): 1084-91; H. J. Simpson, “Tritium in Crater Lake. Oregon,” Journal of Geophysical Research 75:27 (1970): 5195-207; J. S. Leventhal and W. F. Libby, “Tritium Fallout in the Pacific United States,” Journal of Geophysical Research75:35 (1970): 7628-33.
  34. R. C. Smith and J. E. Tyler, “Optical Properties of Clear Natural Water,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 57:5 (1967): 589-95; R. C. Smith et al., “Optical Properties and Color of Lake Tahoe and Crater Lake,” Limnology and Oceanography 18:2 (1973): 189-99.
  35. V. T. Neal et al., “Temperature Microstructure in Crater Lake, Oregon.” Limnology and Oceanography 16:4 (1971): 695-700; idem, “Vertical Temperature Structure in Crater Lake. Oregon,” Limnology and Oceanography 17:3 (1972): 451-3.
  36. N. S. Geiger and D. W Larson, “Phytoplankton Species Distribution in Crater Lake, Oregon, 1978-1980.” in Crater Lake, ed. Drake et al., 153-65; D. W. Larson et al., “Vertical Partitioning of the Phytoplankton Assemblage in Ultraoligotrophic Crater Lake, Oregon,” Freshwater Biology 18 (1987): 429-42.
  37. S. L. Loeb and J. E. Reuter, “The Epilithic Periphyton Community,” Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigungfur Theoretische und Angwandte Limnologie 21 (1981): 346-52; D. L. Williams and R. F1 Von Herzen, “On the Terrestrial Heat Flow and Physical Limnology of Crater Lake, Oregon,” Journal of Geophysical Research88:B2 (1983): 1094-104.
  38. E. Pettit, “On the Color of Crater Lake Water,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 22:2 (1936): 139-46; G. E. Hutchinson, A Treatise on Limnology, Vol. I: Geology, Physics, and Chemistry (New York: John Wiley, 1957), 409; Hasler, “Fish Biology and Limnology of Crater Lake”; Lake survey files, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Springfield, Ore.; Larson, “Temperature, Transparency, and Phytoplankton Productivity in Crater Lake.” Since the author’s measurement in 1969, an even deeper Secchi reading of 157 feet was reported in Oregon’s ultra-pure Waldo Lake in the Cascade Range. See Lake Survey Files, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Springfield.
  39. D. W. Larson, “Limnology of Crater Lake, With Emphasis on Diel Vertical Distributions of Algae” (Annual Report. Natural Sciences Research, National Park Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Seattle, Wash., 1978); idem, “The Crater Lake Study,” Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigungfur Theoretische und Angwandte Limnologie 22 (1984): 513-17; National Park Service, unpublished limnological data collected for Crater Lake, 1984-1991 (National Park Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Seattle); Smith et al., “Optical Properties and Color of Lake Tahoe and Crater Lake,” 189.
  40. Larson, “Crater Lake Limnological Studies.”
  41. G. F. Craun. “Outbreaks of Waterborne Disease of the united states: 1971-1978,”Journal of the American Water Works Association 73 (1981): 360-9.
  42. Quoted in Oregonian (Portland), December 20, 1981. See also, for example,Oregon Journal, December 10, 11.14.1981; Mail Tribune (Medford, Oregon), December 11, 1981; Register-Guard (Eugene. Oregon). December 12,1981;Oregonian, December 20, 1981, May 29, 1992; Herald and News (Klamath Falls, Oregon), July 25, 1982; Gazette-Times (Corvallis, Oregon), October 25, 1982;New York Times, October 25, 1982; Los Angeles Times, October 26, 1982; Seattle Times, October 27, 1982.
  43. U.S. House, “An Act to Correct the Boundary of Crater Lake National Park in the State of Oregon and Other Purposes,” Union Calendar Number 231, 1981; U.S. House, “Correcting the Boundary of Crater Lake National Park in the State of Oregon, and Other Purposes,” Report No. 97-383, 1981.
  44. Larson, “Crater Lake Limnological Studies.”
  45. M. K. Debacon and C. D. Mclntire, “Taxonomic Structure of Phytoplankton Assemblages in Crater Lake, Oregon, U.S.A.,” Freshwater Biology 25 (1991): 95-104; E. N. Kamaugh, “Sampling Strategy and a Preliminary Description of the Pelagic Zooplankton Community in Crater Lake,” in Crater Lake, ed. Drake et al., 177-83; J. M. Thompson et al., “Chemical and Isotopic Compositions of Waters from Crater Lake, Oregon, and Nearby Vicinity,” in Crater Lake. ed. Drake et al., 91-102.
  46. J. McManus et al., “Mixing Processes in Crater Lake, Oregon,” Journal of Geophysical Research 98:C10 (1993): 18,295-307; R. W Collier et al. “Chemical and Physical Properties of the Water Column at Crater Lake, Oregon,” in Crater Lake, ed. Drake et al., 69-79; J. Dymond and R. W Collier, “The Chemistry of Crater Lake Sediments,” in Crater Lake, ed. Drake et al., 41-60; M. Milstein, “Discoveries in the Deep,” National Parks (March/April 1990), 29-33; R. W. Collier and J. Dymond, “Observations of Bacterial Mats Associated with Thermal Springs at 450 Meters Depth in Crater Lake, Oregon,” Eos 69:44 (1988): 1138.
  47. G. L. Larson et al., “Crater Lake Limnological Studies, Final Report, Technical Report NPS/PNROSU/NRTR-93/03 (Seattle: National Park Service, 1993);Oregonian, July 28, 1993. Also see articles in Lake and Reservoir Management12:2 (1996): 221-310.
  48. R. E. Shotwell, “Crater Lake Lodge Renovation Project Set,” Oregonian, April 25,1991; National Park Service, unpublished limnological data, 1984-1991.
  49. Quoted in “Our National Parks,” Life 14:6 (1991): 29.
  50. Phillips and Van Denburgh, “Hydrology of Crater, East and Davis Lakes,” E9.
  51. W T. Edmondson, “Pacific Coast and the Great Basin,” in Limnology in North America, ed. D. G. Frey (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966), 371-92.
  52. Dutton. “Crater Lake. Oregon,” 179.

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